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zone refining

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract Almost all metals and alloys are produced from liquids by solidification. For both castings and wrought products, the solidification process has a major influence on both the microstructure and mechanical properties of the final product. This chapter discusses the three zones...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... in the electronics industry. In the processing of germanium and silicon, for example, the material must first be refined to remove impurities. The technique utilized to perform this function is called zone refining. In this method, the material is incrementally melted while being gradually moved through...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... curing, adhesive bonding, and zone refining of semiconductors, are also amenable to induction heating methods. Each of these applications is briefly discussed below. Prior to the development of induction heating, gas- and oil-fired furnaces provided the prime means...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... 99.96   Mo 7.30 Zone refined Nb 3.40 Zone refined Ta 4.20 Zone refined hcp Ti { 10 1 ¯ 0 } 〈 2 1 ¯ 10 〉 1.40 (Ti) 99.99 (Ti) Low c / a Zr 0.65–0.7 (Zr) 99.0 (Zr) Rh     Hf Be { 0001 } 〈 2 1 ¯ 10...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
.... The transformations associated with the columnar-to-equiaxed zone have been thoroughly studied, particularly because of the casting properties relevant to grain refinement during solidification [ Haworth and Oliver 1967 , Tiller 1959 , Chalmers 1964 , Jackson et al. 1966 ]. It is common for the thermal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., the result is a straight line, with k as the intercept and n as the slope of the curve. The value of n , the time exponent in isothermal grain growth, is usually 0.5 or less. A typical example for isothermal grain growth in zone-refined iron is shown in Fig. 8.23 . The deviations from a straight line...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... In the first stage of the dendrite grain formation, the purpose of the refiner addition to the liquid alloy is to enlarge the constitutional undercooling zone ( Fig. 1.12 ) and facilitate the nucleation of the new grains ( Ref 26 , 27 ). Refinement theory relates to the criterion of solidification front...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... isotherm is approached. Fine-grained fully-austenitized zone (A 3 isotherm to approximately 1100 °C). A subsection of a zone in which complete transformation to austenite occurs. Little, if any, grain growth occurs in the austenite. Grain-refining elements added to the parent metal remain effective...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... be provided, and the properties that it must possess in order to be used effectively in the intended application. Practically all of the commercially available alloys produced today are manufactured using melting and solidification techniques that have been refined over time to produce an acceptable level...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
.... Determination of the actual liquated zone becomes difficult because the depth of liquation varies within the band of large grains. It is quite significant that the billet cast using a Ti grain refiner has a fine equiaxed grain structure compared with the casting without the grain refiner having a coarser...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
.... and Kosec L. , The Fatigue Strength and the Influence of Nonmetallic Inclusions on the Fatigue Fracture of Case-Hardening Steels (BISI 5906) , Härt.-Tech. Mitt. , Vol 22 , July 1967 , p 166 – 173 77. Gunnarson S. , Structure Anomalies in the Surface Zone of Gas-Carburized, Case...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... can have up to two or three distinct zones: a chill zone, a zone containing columnar grains, and a center-equiaxed grain zone ( Fig. B.5 ). It should be noted that all three zones do not always occur. For example, pure metals can exhibit a chill zone and a columnar zone but do not contain a center...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... iron. Because the mold is cooler than the metal, nucleation will occur all over the surface of the mold. Each nucleation event will produce an individual crystal, or grain, which then will attempt to grow. These randomly oriented grains form a “chill zone” next to the mold wall. The grains...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... 849 – 66 31. Bhadeshia H.K.D.H. , Bainite in Steels , 2nd edition , Institute of Materials , 2001 32. Aihara S. , Shigesato G. , Sugiyama M. , and Uemori R. , Microstructural Control of Weld Heat-Affected Zone of Steel by Mn Depletion Around Non-Metallic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... L50000–L50099) Zone-refined lead (99.9999% Pb min) L50001 Refined soft lead (99.999% Pb min) L50005 Refined soft lead (99.99% Pb min) L50011, L50012, L50013, L50014 Corroding lead (99.94% Pb min) L50042 Common lead (99.94% Pb min) L50045 Lead-silver alloys (UNS L50100–L50199...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
.... f p , porosity fraction Fig. 5.4 Relationship of pore volume to cooling rate for different hydrogen contents in Al-4.7Mg alloy (similar to alloy 514.0). Hydrogen content (cm 3 /100 g): 1, 0.31 (no grain refiner); 2, 0.31 (grain refined); 3, 0.22 (grain refined); 4, 0.18 (grain refined); 5...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... of microalloyed HSLA steels result, however, from more than just the mere presence of microalloying elements. Austenite conditioning, which depends on the complex effects of alloy design and rolling techniques, is also an important factor in the grain refinement of hot-rolled HSLA steels. Grain refinement...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract This chapter describes the general characteristics of major types of steel annealing, including the process of normalization, which is a process that refines or normalizes the microstructure of steel. The first part of the chapter begins with an overview of the three-stage process...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... Abstract This chapter reviews weld corrosion in three key application areas: petroleum refining and petrochemical operations, boiling water reactor piping systems, and components used in pulp and paper plants. The discussion of each area addresses general design and service characteristics...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
.... chemical plants design life failure analysis fossil power plants life assessment petroleum plants Need for Remaining-Life-Assessment Technology Fossil Power Plants Reactor Pressure Vessels for Petroleum Refining Design Life of Components Definitions of Failure Implementation...