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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in magnesium alloys was first reported in the 1930s and, within ten years, became the focus of intense study. This chapter provides a summary of all known work published since then on the nature of SCC in magnesium alloys and how it is related...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract Beryllium-related lung diseases were first reported in the 1930s, several years after the emergence of beryllium metals in manufactured products. Since then, there have been numerous studies around the world and continued refinement of recommendations and safety standards. This chapter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Abstract The discovery and use of materials have shaped civilization since ancient times. This chapter traces the history of the use of metals from hammered copper estimated to be 11,000 years old to the development of electrolytically refined aluminum in 1884. The discussion covers the advent...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... Abstract Aluminum generally has excellent resistance to corrosion and gives years of maintenance-free service in natural atmospheres, fresh waters, seawater, many soils and chemicals, and most foods. This chapter explains why aluminum and aluminum alloys are naturally resistant to corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
.... integrated steel industry. The strike itself was not the main event, but it exposed industrywide problems and failures that had existed for many years. Among them were poor labor relations, delayed modernization, an unbalanced product mix, and inconvenient mill locations in relation to the market. Other...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... was financed by Cargill with minority stockholders (including Heffernan). It went onstream in 1968, producing 200,000 tons per year in bars and shapes. One potential customer was Vulcraft in Norfolk, Nebraska, a company that assembled small bars and angle shapes into roofing beams for shopping malls and big...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... University Press , 1987 Tylecote R.F. , A History of Metallurgy , 2nd ed. , Maney Publishing , 1976 Weigley R.F. , Philadelphia: A 300 Year History , W.W. Norton & Co. , 1982 Between the development of these very early iron plants and the time of the American...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... of coalmines. The company controlled six million tons of production, about half of the nation’s total. It was capitalized at $1.4 billion ($40 billion in 2015 dollars), and shares were offered for sale to the public. In the first full year of operations, they had revenue of $560 million and earnings of $34...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... By grouping the last century in approximate 20 year periods, a compact impression of the development of superalloys can be formed. The 20th century saw the understanding and adaptation of chromium as an additive to the transition metals iron, nickel, and cobalt, with marvelous beneficial effects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... Company in Johnstown, Pennsylvania, the company where Daniel Morrell and John Fritz were laboring to develop the three-high mill to roll wrought iron into rails. He sold a controlling interest in his patented process in 1861, and two years later a company was formed to produce steel by the pneumatic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
.... As part of his student training, he worked for a year at the Albany and Rensselaer Iron & Steel Company in Troy, New York, on the Bessemer steel process. Here he came in contact with Alexander Holley, who was building a steel industry with this new process. After graduation from MIT, Howe accepted...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... a professor at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI), where he spent the rest of his career. He was considered the pioneer of titanium in later years when it became a common metal in the aerospace age. FIG. 9.1 Matthew Hunter produced small amounts of titanium for laboratory use. Source: Wikimedia...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
.... Bellows, a device used for blowing air into a fire, were used to raise the temperature. With further refinements, this process was used for many centuries to produce what we call “ wrought iron .” During the many early years that humans used iron, wrought iron was the dominant form. It could be worked hot...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... for a uniform steel for clock springs when he rediscovered the ancient wootz method of melting small quantities of iron (blister steel in this instance, which had already been carburized) in clay pots ( FIG. 6.1 ). For over 175 years (1740 to 1920), this process was used for making steels for tools ( FIG...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... for the discovery of these alloys ( Ref 1 ). Two other researchers who studied iron-chromium and iron-chromium-nickel alloys a few years later included the well-known French metallurgist Albert Portevin and an Englishman, W. Giesen. Portevin studied the straight iron-chromium alloys with both low and high...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... and Evaporative Sections of PF Fired Boilers , in Advances in Materials Technology for Fossil Power Plants, Conf. Proc. , Viswanathan R. and Jaffee R.I. , Ed., ASM International , 1987 , p 219 84. Fahrmann M.G. and Smith G.D. , Evaluation of Clad Tubing after 18 Years...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... ( No. 12 ), 1953 , p 440 10.5006/0010-9312-9.12.440 12. Walton C.J. and King W. , Resistance of Aluminum-Base Alloys to 20-Year Atmospheric Exposure , STP 174, ASTM , 1956 , p 21 10.1520/STP44083S 13. McGeary F.L. , Englehart E.T. , and Ging P.J. , Weathering...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
.... Extraction processes for recovery of the hydroxide intermediate from beryl required delivery of ore containing 10 to 12 Wt% BeO. Beryl consumption has amounted to approximately 4500 metric tons per year. The beryl mining industry remained relatively small compared with the major mineral commodities. In a few...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
..., and the aluminum attracted special attention. Material from Deville’s production was used to form tableware to replace gold and silver at royal banquets. Within a few years, Deville reduced the price of aluminum from $90 a pound to $17 a pound. This was accomplished by using fluorspar and cryolite as fluxes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... low compared to the maximum rate shown in Fig. 4 , is still greater than 1.3 mm/year (50 mils/year), making iron and steel unsuitable for use in shipping and storing nitric acids at any concentration. Nitric acid in bulk is usually stored and shipped in type 304 stainless steel, aluminum alloy 3003...