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x-ray diffraction analysis

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... analysis, namely differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, thermal-mechanical analysis, and dynamic mechanical analysis. The following sections provide details on X-ray diffraction for analyzing crystalline phases and on a minimal scheme for polymer analysis and characterization to assist...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
...-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, Auger electron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, oxygen analysis, and nanoindentation. cold-sprayed coatings residual-stress analysis hardness bond adhesion strength microscopy spectroscopy diffraction MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
...), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Techniques based on diffraction principles such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron diffraction, and neutron diffraction. These techniques provide information on the chemical composition of the material, microstructure and phase analysis, and also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... and emitted x-rays and the methods used to access it, namely wavelength and energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron backscattering diffraction techniques. It also describes the role of focused ion beam milling in sample preparation and provides information on atom probes, atomic force microscopes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... diameter side of the pigtail. Using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) analysis, acicular phases were found to be enriched in aluminum, while blocky phases were enriched in chromium; the former was believed to be aluminum nitride and the latter chromium nitride...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... 0.76 Silicon 0.75 Chromium 1.38 Iron 79.13 Nickel 0.19 For the purpose of phase identification, the scale sample was subjected to x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis using a powder x-ray diffractometer, and the results of analysis are shown in Fig. 6.152 and Table 6.21...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.9781627082815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... properties. For example, investigation of stress relief in cold extruded mild steel bars showed that residual stresses were almost completely relieved without any hardness decrease after heating at 500 °C (930 °F) for 1 h ( Ref 20.8 ). Residual-stress profiles are measured by x-ray diffraction analysis...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... Abstract Several specialized instruments are available for the metallographer to use as tools to gather key information on the characteristics of the microstructure being analyzed. These include microscopes that use electrons as a source of illumination instead of light and x-ray diffraction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract This appendix explains how to identify crystallographic planes and directions. It shows how Miller indices, a system for specifying crystallographic planes within a unit cell, are determined for cubic and hexagonal systems. It also explains how x-ray diffraction techniques are used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... as the extraction residue obtained from the test specimens using x-ray diffraction technique to determine the phases present. The results of the x-ray diffraction analysis are summarized in Table 6.45 for the corrosion scales spalled from tested specimens and in Table 6.46 for the extraction residue obtained...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
..., Auger electrons and X-ray photons. Most of the transmitted and elastically scattered electrons and some of the inelastically scattered electrons are used to form an image. TEM based elemental analysis techniques utilize X-ray photons in energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) [1 - 2] and inelastically...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... temperatures, solidus temperatures, solubility lines, and other phase transition lines. Along with equilibrated alloys, several techniques are used to determine phase diagrams. These include thermal analysis (TA), metallography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dilatometry, electrical resistance measurement...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... Abstract This chapter covers the early studies and various discoveries by metals researchers to study the internal structure of metals. The topics covered include light microscopy, phase diagrams, X-ray diffraction, principles of precipitation hardening, and dislocation theory...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
...; accessible range, 0.001 to 10%; accuracy, 2 to 5% Emission spectroscopy: Applicable to all elements; accessible range, 0.005 to 10%; accuracy, 2 to 5% X-ray fluorescence analysis: Normally applicable to elements heavier than sodium; accessible range, 0.005 to 10%; accuracy, 2 to 5% Laser...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... D. R. , Elements of X-ray Diffraction , Third Edition , Prentice Hall , Upper Saddle River, NJ , 2001 1.5 Vickerman J. C. , Surface Analysis-The Principle Techniques , John Wiley & Sons , 1997 1.6 Williams D. B. and Carter C. B. , Transmission Electron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... to crystalline solids C.9 X-ray diffraction Scattering of x-rays transmitted through or reflected from a solid sample Quantitative crystalline phase analysis As C.8. Detection limit 1−5%. Accuracy between ±1 and ±10% of detected level. Sample may be in powder form so ideal for analysis of corrosion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
...: wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive analysis. In wavelength dispersive instruments, shown in Fig. 4 , the emitted x-ray beam is directed onto one of several crystals that separates it into its component wavelengths by diffraction (similar to separating light into its component wavelengths by passing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., crystalline imperfections, and the formation of surface or planar defects. It also discusses the use of X-ray diffraction for determining crystal structure. crystalline structures line defects metallic structure planar defects plastic deformation point defects volume defects X-ray diffraction...