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x-ray diffraction analysis

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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 6.71 Scanning electron micrograph showing the corrosion scale (mainly NiF 2 with some CrF 3 , as determined by x-ray diffraction analysis) formed on alloy N after testing in HF for 115 h at 650 °C (1200 °F). Source: Ref 72 . Courtesy of Glyn Marsh More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Amount by wt.% Oxygen 15.79 Aluminum 0.76 Silicon 0.75 Chromium 1.38 Iron 79.13 Nickel 0.19 For the purpose of phase identification, the scale sample was subjected to x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis using a powder x-ray diffractometer, and the results of analysis...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... analysis, namely differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, thermal-mechanical analysis, and dynamic mechanical analysis. The following sections provide details on X-ray diffraction for analyzing crystalline phases and on a minimal scheme for polymer analysis and characterization to assist...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... of a pure substance is, thus, like a fingerprint of the substance. X-ray diffraction has therefore emerged as one of the most powerful tools for qualitative and quantitative analysis of phases present in a crystalline solid. It is ideally suited for characterization and identification of polycrystalline...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... Abstract Several specialized instruments are available for the metallographer to use as tools to gather key information on the characteristics of the microstructure being analyzed. These include microscopes that use electrons as a source of illumination instead of light and x-ray diffraction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
...-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, Auger electron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, oxygen analysis, and nanoindentation. cold-sprayed coatings residual-stress analysis hardness bond adhesion strength microscopy spectroscopy diffraction MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.9781627082815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... chloride W W 1 WDS XMC XPS XRD µ Abbreviations and Symbols / 435 wear volume, wear rate wear resistance wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy extra-high-strength molding compound x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy x-ray diffraction analysis surface energy, shear strain shear strain rate loss angle...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... 36 X-ray diffraction analysis of the oxide scales formed on alloys 230, 617, and X was performed with the results summarized in Table 4.5 . The results showed that NiO and NiCr 2 O 4 along with Cr 2 O 3 oxides made up the external oxide scales for alloy 230, and NiO and Cr 2 O 3 made up...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract This appendix explains how to identify crystallographic planes and directions. It shows how Miller indices, a system for specifying crystallographic planes within a unit cell, are determined for cubic and hexagonal systems. It also explains how x-ray diffraction techniques are used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... scattered electrons are used to form an image. TEM based elemental analysis techniques utilize X-ray photons in energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) [1 - 2] and inelastically scattered electrons or the ‘energy-loss’ electron in electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Energy-filtered transmission...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
...%; accuracy, 2 to 5% X-ray fluorescence analysis: Normally applicable to elements heavier than sodium; accessible range, 0.005 to 10%; accuracy, 2 to 5% Techniques for Local Composition Variations Laser probe microanalysis: Applicable to nearly all elements; accessible range, 0.01 to 100...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... diagrams. These include thermal analysis (TA), metallography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dilatometry, electrical resistance measurement, and magnetic analysis methods, among others. All of these methods are based on the principle that when a phase transition in an alloy occurs, its physical and chemical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... and emitted x-rays and the methods used to access it, namely wavelength and energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron backscattering diffraction techniques. It also describes the role of focused ion beam milling in sample preparation and provides information on atom probes, atomic force microscopes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.9781627082518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... of related techniques of these methods are also covered. chemical composition dissolved gases high-temperature combustion inert gas fusion methods optical emission spectroscopy scanning auger microprobe surface analysis X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy THE OVERALL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... Abstract This chapter covers the early studies and various discoveries by metals researchers to study the internal structure of metals. The topics covered include light microscopy, phase diagrams, X-ray diffraction, principles of precipitation hardening, and dislocation theory...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the most common micro-analytical technique in the failure analysis laboratory: energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It discusses the general characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of some of the X-ray detectors attached...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Spectroscopy (EDS). In Electron Probe Microanalyzers the spectra are resolved with better resolution by diffraction of the characteristic Xrays from single crystals in a process referred to as Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS) ( Ref 1.3 ). Auger Electron Spectroscopy The X-ray spectra generated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... microscope). Limited to crystalline solids C.9 X-ray diffraction Scattering of x-rays transmitted through or reflected from a solid sample Quantitative crystalline phase analysis As C.8. Detection limit 1−5%. Accuracy between ±1 and ±10% of detected level. Sample may be in powder form so ideal...