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x-ray diffraction

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
...: Ref 5.15 ) and (b) typical XRF spectrum of a rock sample. Source: Ref 5.16 Fig. 5.20 X-ray diffraction pattern of a scale on hot-rolled steel. Source: Ref 5.17 Fig. 5.21 X-ray diffraction profile for corrosion products formed on steel surface. Source: Ref 5.18 Fig...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... spray coatings. The techniques covered are optical microscopy, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam machining, electron probe microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy, and electron backscattered diffraction. The techniques also include electron channeling contrast...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
.... 6.7 A sketch showing some of the different types of electrons and x-rays generated by the interaction of the primary incident electron beam with the specimen in the electron microscope Fig. 6.30 X-ray diffraction data showing the oxides present in scale on a steel surface. Each peak...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
...Abstract Abstract This chapter covers the early studies and various discoveries by metals researchers to study the internal structure of metals. The topics covered include light microscopy, phase diagrams, X-ray diffraction, principles of precipitation hardening, and dislocation theory...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... A.1 Fig. A.20 Close-packed planes. Source: Ref A.1 Fig. A.1 Periodic table of the elements. Source: Ref A.1 Fig. A.26 Diffraction of x-rays by planes of atoms. Source: Ref A.4 as published in Ref A.1 Fig. A.27 Schematic of x-ray diffractometer. Source...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... in thermal analysis, namely differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, thermal-mechanical analysis, and dynamic mechanical analysis. The following sections provide details on X-ray diffraction for analyzing crystalline phases and on a minimal scheme for polymer analysis and characterization...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract This appendix explains how to identify crystallographic planes and directions. It shows how Miller indices, a system for specifying crystallographic planes within a unit cell, are determined for cubic and hexagonal systems. It also explains how x-ray diffraction techniques...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... 0.76 Silicon 0.75 Chromium 1.38 Iron 79.13 Nickel 0.19 X-ray diffraction analysis of scale sample Table 6.21 X-ray diffraction analysis of scale sample Position (2θ) Relative intensity d-spacing Phase(s) 18.2849 9.27 4.84802 Magnetite 24.1257 12.75...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... (CT) Electric Current Perturbation Method (ECP) Acoustic Microscopy X-ray Diffraction Visual examination is an easy and widely used method for detecting surface flaws in a variety of components. Visual examination is carried out with the naked eye and with instruments such as borescopes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... techniques are used to determine phase diagrams. These include thermal analysis (TA), metallography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dilatometry, electrical resistance measurement, and magnetic analysis methods, among others. All of these methods are based on the principle that when a phase transition in an alloy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... and emitted x-rays and the methods used to access it, namely wavelength and energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron backscattering diffraction techniques. It also describes the role of focused ion beam milling in sample preparation and provides information on atom probes, atomic force microscopes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...: Ref 45 Phases detected from the x-ray diffraction analysis performed on the surfaces of test specimens after exposure to NH<sub>3</sub> at temperatures indicated for 168 h Table 4.19 Phases detected from the x-ray diffraction analysis performed on the surfaces of test specimens after...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... industrial practice but because it combined the latest research tool (x-ray diffraction) with the latest theory of hardening (slip interference by precipitated particles). Bain performed the x-ray work and Jeffries supplied the slip interference concept. This paper showed, as concluded earlier by Edwards...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... of the compound zone was measured. The local peaks appearing on the surface were ignored. The accuracy of a single measurement was ±0.1 μm. There was a minimum of five samples used in each run. The x-ray diffraction phase analysis was performed using Cr K α radiation. Results and Discussion The compound...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... in steel was by Edgar C. Bain ( FIG. 5.5 ). Using x-ray diffraction on samples heated to the high temperature phase (austenite), he found they were face-centered-cubic (fcc). Ferrite and martensite at room temperature were body-centered-cubic (bcc). This explained the higher solubility for carbon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.9781627082518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Treatment ’79 , Birmingham, England , 1979 , p 122 – 125 20.9 SAE Handbook Supplement: Residual Stress Measurements by X-Ray Diffraction , SAE 1784a, SAE , Warrendale, PA , 1971 20.10 Scholtes G. and Macherauch F. , Residual Stress Determination , Case-Hardened Steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Microanalysis , Third Edition , Plenum Press , New York , 2007 1.4 Cullity B. D. and Stock D. R. , Elements of X-ray Diffraction , Third Edition , Prentice Hall , Upper Saddle River, NJ , 2001 1.5 Vickerman J. C. , Surface Analysis-The Principle Techniques , John Wiley...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.9781627082969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... using x-ray diffraction after the cooling subsequent to the end of the austempering holding time. Triangles represent the calculated values; see text for a discussion of the calculation method. Source: Ref 2 Fig. 15.11 Carbon content of the retained austenite as a function...