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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... equation reduces to: ε . = A ′ σ n ′   exp ⁡   ( − Q / R T ) which describes the relationship among three variables under creep conditions. Evaluation of experimental data of the activation energy, Q , indicates that some metals in hot working soften...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... tensile behavior fitted to an equation of the type: (Eq. 6) σ R = k ε R n where n is defined as the work hardening exponent, an important property when measuring the deformation ability or formability of metals. Another important property in characterizing the performace of metas in...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
.... , Caddy T. H. , and McKinnon J. A. : “ Comparison of Dynamic Hardness Testers, ” Mechanical Working & Steel Processing , vol. XVIII , American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineering , 1980 , pp. 183 – 203 . 35. Hadfield D. : “ Magnetic Measurement of the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... ), which was proposed later, works the same, except that it also applies to elliptical holes. The Saff equation is described later in this appendix. Many published works have dealt with finite-width effects on circular and elliptical holes ( Ref A2.5 – A2.9 ). The most familiar is the Howland solution...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... the study of heat related to matter in motion. All thermodynamics systems require some energy source and transfer media to carry the heat to raise the temperature in the system. In extrusion, heat is generated by both the frictional work and the work of deformation. Heat generation and transfer take...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... for cold-worked condition and for austenitic steels. Source: ASTM E140 Table A3.1 Examples of published hardness conversion equations Steels H B = 7300 130 − H R B (40–100 HRB) H B = 3710 130 − H R E (30–100 HRE) H B = 1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... a longer dwell time before the deformation, which results in longer free resting heat transfer between the workpiece and the dies. Experimental work on the determination and comparison of the characteristics of forging presses was carried out on rings made from selected steel, titanium, and aluminum...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... or work, which in the case of a resistance is given by the product of charge passed times potential difference. If the resistance approached infinity ( R →), Reaction 1 would proceed through infinitesimal steps and can be considered thermodynamically reversible. In this case, the thermal heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... , 1983 8.4 Eshel G. , Barash M. , Johnson W. , Rule Based Modeling for Planning Axi-symmetrical Deep-Drawing , Journal of Mechanical Working Technology , Vol 14 ( No. 1 ), 1986 , p 1 – 115 10.1016/0378-3804(86)90059-8 8.5 Wilson D.V. and Butler R.D. , The...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... Abstract Fracture mechanics is the science of predicting the load-carrying capabilities of cracked structures based on a mathematical description of the stress field surrounding the crack. The fundamental ideas stem from the work of Griffith, who demonstrated that the strain energy released...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... changes with temperature. However, the two constants A and B can be determined if the times for 50% recrystallization at two different temperatures are known by writing the equation for the two different temperatures and solving the two equations for the constants. Since cold working is a method...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... Abstract This chapter discusses the important role of metallography and the metallographer in predicting and understanding the properties of metals and alloys. Examples are presented of a metallographer working as part of a team in a research laboratory of a large steel company and a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Abstract This chapter focuses on the failure aspects of tool steels. The discussion covers the classification, chemical composition, main characteristics, and several failures of tool steels and their relation to heat treatment. The tool steels covered are hot work, cold work, plastic mold, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... Abstract This chapter opens with a discussion of the classification of rod and tube extrusion processes. The standard processes involve hot working (extrusion at temperatures above room temperature), but some specialized cold working processes are also used for rod and tube extrusion. The next...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpktmse.t56010019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-384-3
... Abstract This appendix provides readers with worked solutions to 25 problems involving calculations associated with tensile testing and the determination of mechanical properties and variables. The problems deal with engineering factors and considerations such as stress and strain, loading...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the development and use of microstructure models for optimizing superalloy forging operations. It describes how the processes that control grain structure evolution during hot working were used in model formulation and compares predicted microstructures with...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Abstract This chapter discusses the principles and procedures of electrochemical measurements used to investigate corrosion behaviors. It begins by presenting a diagram of a basic potentiostatic circuit, which consists of a working electrode and an auxiliary or counter electrode suspended in an...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... (up to a few hundred thousand) of finite-volume cells, for which the flow and temperature fields are worked out. Turbulence and frictional losses are taken into account. The Navier-Stokes equations, energy equations, and further scalar equations, for example, for two-phase flow, are solved for each...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... fatigue data. It compares the Gerber, Goodman, and Soderberg methods for predicting the effect of mean stress from bending data, describes the statistical nature of fatigue measurements, and explains how plastic strain causes cyclic hardening and softening. It discusses the work of Wohler, Basquin, and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses the tools and techniques of light microscopy and how they are used in the study of materials. It reviews the basic physics of light, the inner workings of light microscopes, and the relationship between resolution and depth of field. It explains the difference...