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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
...Abstract Abstract The compound zone that forms on the surface of nitrided steels is often called the white layer. When the nitrided sample is sectioned through the case, and then polished and etched with a standard solution of nital (2 to 5% nitric acid and alcohol), the immediate surface...
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 21.42 White layer and diffusion zone in nitrided steel. Steel is Nitralloy 135 Modified containing 0.4% C, 1.6% Cr, 0.35% Mo, and 1.13% Al. Base microstructure is tempered martensite of hardness 30 HRC. Etched in 1.5% nital. Original magnification at 500x. Courtesy of D. Stratford More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 13 (a) White layer on a tool surface rehardened by an incorrect grinding procedure. (b) Typical hardness profile in regions close to cracks. Source: Ref 11 More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 14 Electrical discharge machining (EDM) white layer found on a die surface made of AISI D6 (similar to D3) tool steel. Note the white aspect of untempered martensite caused by the EDM process and the presence of small cracks in this layer. Original magnification: 500×. Courtesy of Villares More
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Published: 01 November 2013
Fig. 26 Effect of one- and two-stage nitriding on white layer. (a) Single stage, gas nitrided for 24 h at 525 °C (975 °F). (b) Double stage, gas nitrided for 5 h at 525 °C (975 °F) followed by second stage at 565 °C (1050 °F) for 24 h. Original magnification: 400×. Source: Ref 13 More
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Published: 01 December 2003
Fig. 2 Typical nitrided case structure showing the white layer (top), the diffusion zone, and the core below the diffusion zone. Source: Ref 1 More
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Published: 01 September 2005
Fig. 2 Typical nitrided case structure showing the white layer (top), the diffusion zone, and the core below the diffusion zone More
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Published: 01 December 2003
Fig. 2 Micrographs of white nitride layers developed on vacuum-melted AMS 6470 steel. (a) White layer 0.033 mm (0.0013 in.) thick formed after single-stage nitriding at 525 °C (975 °F) for 60 h with 28% dissociation. Buildup of white layer at corner was 0.084 mm (0.0033 in.). (b) White layer More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
...Abstract Abstract Gaseous ferritic nitrocarburizing, like salt bath nitrocarburizing, involves the introduction of carbon and nitrogen into steel in order to produce a thin layer of iron carbonitride and nitrides, the "white layer" or compound layer, with an underlying diffusion zone containing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
...Abstract Abstract Formation of the nitrided case begins through a series of nucleated growth areas on the steel surface. These nucleating growth areas will eventually become what is known as the compound layer or, more commonly, the white layer. This chapter discusses the influence of carbon...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... the effects of white layer formation in nitrided gears and presents general recommendations for nitrided gears. The chapter describes the microstructure, overload and fatigue damage, bending-fatigue life, cost, and distortion of nitrided gears. Information on nitriding steels used in Europe...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
..., the compound layer above the diffusion zone known as “white layer” is essentially composed of pure nitrides of iron and is very brittle. In ion nitriding, the white layer is usually below 0.0127 mm (0.0005 in.). It is possible to reduce the thickness of this layer further by controlling the ratio of nitrogen...
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 42 (a) Microstructure of working regions of valve forging die in Fig. 41 (region A). Note the intense cracking and thick nitrided layer (double the expected). Also note the surface white layer, which corresponds to brittle untempered martensite, obtained by rehardening of the tool surface More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... in. 2–5 1.524 0.060 0.381 0.015 6–10 1.270 0.050 0.254 0.010 12–20 0.762 0.030 0.127 0.005 White Layer in Nitrided Gears The microstructure of nitrided steels is comprised of three distinct regions: the compound layer, the diffusion zone, and the core ( Fig. 2...
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 3.55 Microstructure of a “wheel burn” condition on a railroad rail (eutectoid steel) showing the surface “white layer” and other layers. These layers are shown at higher magnification in Fig. 3.56 . 2% nital etch. 32× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 3.56 Microstructure of the various layers of the rail steel in Fig. 3.55 . (a) The white layer at the surface (unattacked by the etchant), (b) tempered plate martensite, (c) as-quenched plate martensite and pearlite (dark), and (d) pearlite base microstructure. 4% picral etch. 1000× More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 37 Tool steel surface after nitriding. (a) White and diffusion layers (b) Coarse nitrides precipitated on grain boundaries. See text for discussion. Courtesy of Villares Metals More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 10.95 Steel nitrocarburized at 550 °C (1020 °F) for 5 h. The surface was coated with a chemically deposited layer of hard nickel to preserve it for metallographic examination (indicated as Ni in the figure). The “white layer” is where the formation of high hardness nitrides occur. Tempered More
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Published: 01 December 1984
Figure 2-16 b Cross-sectional views of silicon carbide grinding paper (Buehler Carbimet). All but 120-grit paper were coated with electroless nickel (white layers), 250 ×. More
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Published: 01 December 1984
Figure 6-2 Comparison of the effective case depth of a nitrided AISI 4150 alloy steel assessed by visual estimation and by microhardness (100-g) traverses (110 ×, nital). Note the heavy “whitelayer at the surface. More