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white iron

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the production, properties, and uses of high-alloy white irons. It explains how the composition and melt are controlled to produce a large volume of eutectic carbides, making these irons particularly hard and resistant to wear, and how the metallic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
...Abstract Abstract This article explains how malleable iron is produced and how its microstructure and properties differ from those of gray and ductile iron. Malleable iron is first cast as white iron then annealed to convert the iron carbide into irregularly shaped graphite particles called...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... discusses composition, microstructure, heat treatments, and the classification and casting characteristics of white, gray, ductile, malleable, compacted graphite, and special cast irons. chemical composition compacted graphite cast iron ductile cast iron gray cast iron heat treatment malleable...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... iron microstructures at 100 times optical magnification. (a) Flake graphite in gray cast iron (GCI), (b) graphite nodules in ductile iron (DI), (c) white iron, no graphite nodules or flakes (60 HRC) Fig. 7.12 Hardfacing on the sides of an excavator shovel Fig. 7.3 Ferrite grains...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the composition, properties, microstructure, grain formation, and fracture behavior of gray, white, ductile, and malleable cast iron and how these critical factors are affected when iron is heated to different temperatures prior to or during...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., V, Cr, Sn, Mo, and Mn) promote the formation of cementite. This chapter examines the relative potencies of these alloys and their effect on microstructure. It covers the five most common commercial cast irons, including white, gray, ductile, malleable, and compacted graphite, describing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
...Abstract Abstract This chapter introduces the metallographer to the various types of steels and cast irons and explains how they are classified and defined. Classification and designation details are provided for plain carbon steels, alloy steels, and gray, white, ductile, and malleable cast...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the effect of composition and cooling rate on the microstructure and properties of cast irons and explains how they differ from steel. It describes the conditions under which white, gray, mottled (chilled), and nodular (ductile) cast irons are produced...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... 0.8 0.20 0.10 … White cast iron 2.0–3.5 (all combined) 0.5–1.5 0.5 0.2–0.4 0.10 … Malleable cast iron 2.3 1.0 0.4 0.20 0.10 … Ductile cast iron Ferrite 3.5 2.5 0.2 0.05 0.01 0.04 Mg Pearlitic 3.5 2.5 0.4 0.05 0.01 0.04 Mg...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
...× Fig. 2.1(d) A microstructure consisting of pearlite (dark), bainite (gray), and martensite (white). 4% picral and 2% nitral etch. 500× Microstructural Development Resulting from Heat Treatment The Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram Kinetics of Phase Transformations The Microstructural...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.9781627083232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... by the mechanical action (scratching) of solids in a slurry. The ASTM G75 slurry erosion test details how to determine the corrosion component of the erosion and the synergy—whether the abrasion adds to the corrosion of 27% Cr white iron. Thus, a tool steel can be a candidate for problems involving slurry erosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
...Abstract Abstract Microstructures can be altered intentionally or unintentionally. In some cases, metallographers must diagnose what may have happened to the steel or cast iron based on the microstructural details. This chapter discusses how microstructure in steels and cast irons can...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... on the Pitting Fatigue of 8620 Steel,” Paper 720268 , Society of Automotive Engineers , 1972 10.4271/720268 46. Gahrzum K.H. and Scholz W.G. , Fracture Toughness of White Cast Irons , J. Met. , Oct 1980 , p 38 10.1007/BF03354538 47. Sagaradze V.S. , Effect of Heat...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
.... The white areas indicate the presence of iron carbide, while the dark areas indicate that flake graphite is present. Figure 1-37 The fracture of this eutectoid carbon bar that broke during heat treatment reveals the depth of hardening and an unsound center condition. Hot-acid etching of a disc...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... International A536, grade 60-45-10 up to grade 120-90-02) can similarly be used for lubricated sliding wear against hardened steel. The abrasion resistance of these cast irons is commensurate with their hardness, and the white cast irons have very good abrasion resistance. Welding iron-chromium hardfacings...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... represent iron-graphite equilibrium conditions, and solid lines represent iron-cementite equilibrium conditions. The solid lines at the eutectic are important to white cast irons, and the dotted lines are important to gray cast irons. Fig. 30 Effect of alloying element on eutectoid temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... , p 508 – 521 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005937 • Heat Treatment of Malleable and Compacted-Graphite Irons , Heat Treating of Irons and Steels , Vol 4D , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2014 , p 522 – 526 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005969 • Heat Treating of High-Alloy White Cast Irons...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... as chromium, nickel, molybdenum, and tungsten. Cast iron engine parts have long been made more wear resistant by alloying with silicon. Silicon additions also increase wear resistance of aluminum alloys. High-alloy white irons have improved wear resistance due to the presence of massive chromium carbides...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... platelets of ferrite (white) and iron carbide (dark). Source: Ref 7.2 When a steel that contains less than the eutectoid composition of 0.77% C is slowly cooled, ferrite will form before the eutectoid temperature is reached. As the ferrite forms, the austenite becomes enriched in carbon, finally...