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white etchants

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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 17.12 (a) Hypoeutectic white cast iron. Austenite dendrites were transformed into pearlite (dark). The transformed ledeburite, among the dendrites, is composed of cementite (white) and pearlite (dark, small dots). Etchant: nital. (b) Another hypoeutectic white cast iron. Austenite More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
..., among the dendrites, is composed of cementite (white) and pearlite (dark, small dots). Etchant: nital. (b) Another hypoeutectic white cast iron. Austenite dendrites were transformed into pearlite (dark). The transformed ledeburite, between the dendrites, is composed of cementite (white) and pearlite...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 17.54 Gray cast iron. Graphite, steadite (dotted regions) and cementite in a pearlitic matrix. Steadite presents a white edge. The constituent in this edge can be identified using color etchants (see the section “ Phosphorus-Containing Eutectics ” in this chapter). Etchant: picral. More
Image
Published: 31 December 2020
Fig. 18 Decarburization Microstructures. Arrows indicate total depth of decarburization. (a) Decarburization on a 0.8% carbon eutectoid steel (0.78 C, 0.30 Mn) 50X,(b) Transverse section of a normalized hot rolled bar 100X. Picral etchant. Picral etchants define the pearlite and show More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
) Etched with LePera etchant: ferrite (greenish blue, here light gray), bainite or bainitic ferrite (brown, here darker gray), pearlite (dark), and martensite-austenite (MA) regions (white). Courtesy of C. S. Viana, EEIMVR-UFF, Volta Redonda, RJ, Brazil. Source: Ref 5 More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
to 650 °C (1200 °F), at 1.0 °C/s (2 °F/s), and quenched in flowing helium. The carbon enrichment in the white areas, together with the austenite decomposition, was sufficient for the formation of MA on quenching. Etchant: LePera. Optical microscope, polarized light. Courtesy of M. S. Andrade, CETEC, MG More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 17.16 Hypoeutectic white cast iron. Long cementite crystals in a matrix of transformed ledeburite. Etchant: picral. More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 17.17 Larger magnification view of the structure of the white cast iron presented in Fig. 17.16 . Etchant: picral. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 17.15 Hypoeutectic white cast iron rapidly cooled during solidification. Small interdendritic arm spacing. Etchant: picral. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 17.19 Transformed ledeburite in the eutectic region of a white cast iron. Small areas of pearlite in a cementite matrix. Etchant: picral. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 17.65 Mottled cast iron. Dark areas are gray cast iron. The rest of the cross section is white cast iron. Etchant: picral. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 9.24 Etchants such as LePera and their modifications can selectively color tint phases. In the photographs (here reproduced in grayscale), (a) and (b) F = ferrite, bluish green in the original, here intermediate gray tone; B = bainite (brown, darker gray tone); M-A, white. TRIP steels More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 17.18 Hypereutectic white cast iron. Etching with sodium picrate colors cementite gray (both pro-eutectic cementite and the cementite in ledeburite). Etchant: sodium picrate solution. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 17.64 Mottled gray iron. Dark areas are regions of gray cast irons (the contours are not as clear as in Fig. 17.63 ). The rest of the cross section is white cast iron. Etchant: picral. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 8.25 Cast iron. White regions are dendrites of pro-eutectic austenite. Between the dendrites the austenite-graphite eutectic can be seen. Optical micrograph; picral etchant. Reproduced with permission from DoITPoMS, University of Cambridge. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 8.40 Macrograph of a white cast iron. Dendrites are clearly visible. The dendrite axes are dark, as the austenite in these regions has decomposed into ferrite and cementite, probably pearlite. Etchant: Nitric acid (nital). (Compare with Fig. 8.39 .) More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 17.70 Region close to the surface in a hypoeutectic white cast iron part. The rapid extraction of heat through the surface has led to the growth of dendrites in a direction normal to the surface, forming a columnar zone. Etchant: nital. More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 10.44 Cross section of a hand file. The white, external region corresponds to the area that transformed to martensite on quenching. The gray central area corresponds to the region where the cooling rate was not sufficiently high to form 100% martensite. Etchant: nital. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 17.73 Region close to the chilled surface of a hypoeutectic gray cast iron. Elongated cementite (similar to the plate eutectic; see the section “ 17.2 White Cast Irons ” in this chapter) and ledeburite. Graphite is visible in the center of the image. Etchant: picral. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 17.69 Transverse cross section of a rolling mill roll. The cylinder surface (upper portion of the image) has been chilled. White cast iron region close to the roll surface, gray core, and mottled transition region. Etchant: iodine. More