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wetting

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Published: 01 April 2004
Fig. 5.5 Wetting rate, as measured by the time for the wetting force to reach an acceptable value, for a range of solders on different component and board finishes. There is no conclusive trend of superiority for any solder or solderable coating, emphasizing the need to tailor the lead-free More
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Published: 01 April 2004
Fig. 5.6 Wetting rate, as measured by the time for the wetting force to reach an acceptable value, of solders on different substrates in different atmospheres. The relative ranking varies greatly, depending on the metals and process atmosphere involved. More
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Published: 01 April 2004
Fig. 5.23 Wetting force at 2 s, determined using a wetting balance, for three commercial fluxes, as a function of the heat treatment condition used to produce the solderability reference standard More
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Published: 30 April 2020
Fig. 3.31 Two-particle test for liquid wetting. The liquid pulls the solid particles together to form a point contact (upper sketch). A nonwetting liquid minimizes contact with the solid by forcing particle separation (lower sketch). More
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Published: 30 April 2020
Fig. 3.32 Image of a wetting binder resting as a sessile drop on a horizontal solid. The contact angle, θ, is estimated from the profile. More
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Published: 01 August 2005
Fig. 3.10 Wetting mechanism of self-fluxing filler metals. (a) Self-fluxing filler applied to copper component. (b) Filler and its oxide melt and wet the oxide film on the component surface. (c) Oxide film on the component dissolves in the molten braze to form a slag that floats to the free More
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Published: 01 August 2005
Fig. 4.26 Schematic representation of a wetting balance tailored for use above 1000 °C (1830 °F). Adapted from Solomon, Delair, and Thyssen [2003] More
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Published: 01 August 2005
Fig. 4.27 Typical trace of the wetting force during a brazeability test cycle, with the corresponding position of the specimen relative to the braze bath More
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Published: 01 August 2005
Fig. 7.13 Effect of titanium concentration on the wetting of some nitride ceramics by Cu-Ti-activated brazes, as measured by the contact angle. Adapted from Nicholas [1989a] More
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Published: 01 August 2005
Fig. 7.15 Comparison of the influence of composition on the wetting of Si 3 N 4 ceramic by titanium-activated brazes under comparable process conditions, as measured by the contact angle. Adapted from Nicholas and Peteves [1991] More
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Published: 01 August 2005
Fig. 7.22 Influence of brazing temperature on the wetting of Si 3 N 4 by the Ag-27Cu-2Ti alloy, as measured by the contact angle. Adapted from Nicholas and Peteves [1991] More
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Published: 01 April 2004
Fig. 1.9 Wetting angle of lead-tin solder on copper at 10 °C above the melting point, 1 min after reflow using rosin mildly activated (RMA) flux, as a function of lead concentration. Adapted from Liu and Tu [1998] More
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Published: 01 April 2004
Fig. 1.15 Contact angle of lead-tin solder on copper as a function of wetting time, using an inert flux and low superheat. There are four distinct stages of wetting, the last being the equilibrium contact angle that is obtained using more typical process parameters. More
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Published: 01 April 2004
Fig. 3.6 Wetting of copper by Pb-63Sn solder using rosin flux. Soldering with flux generally benefits from a protective atmosphere (unless the atmosphere detrimentally affects the chemistry of the fluxing action), because the flux has to work less to protect the substrate and filler from More
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Published: 01 April 2004
Fig. 3.25 Fluxless wetting of Pb-62Sn solder on copper and gold-on-nickel metallizations, using acetic acid vapor of varying concentration as an active reductant in the atmosphere More
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Published: 01 April 2004
Fig. 3.28 The effect of different doping additions on the fluxless wetting angle of indium on silver substrates, as a function of time following the commencement of melting of the solder More
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Published: 01 April 2004
Fig. 5.4 Wetting speed of lead-tin solder on copper using a rosin-based flux in air and nitrogen atmospheres. Nitrogen reduces the propensity for the solder and substrate to oxidize and thereby decreases the cleaning action demanded of the flux to effect wetting. More
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Published: 01 April 2004
Fig. 5.15 Commercially available wetting balance. Courtesy of Concoat More
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Published: 01 April 2004
Fig. 5.16 Typical trace of the wetting force during a solderability test cycle, with the corresponding position of the specimen relative to the solder bath More
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Published: 01 April 2004
Fig. 5.18 Wetting behavior of mild steel by lead-tin eutectic solder, measured on a wetting balance at 235 °C (455 °F). (a) As-received condition. Wetting occurs slowly and at an inconsistent rate. (b) Following mechanical abrasion of the coupon surfaces immediately prior to testing. Wetting More