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weld bead morphology

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... and causes a larger weld pool (larger weld bead), and the isotemperature contours elongate more toward the back of the arc, for low-conductivity materials ( Fig. 5.3a ). For aluminum ( Fig. 5.3c ), a larger heat input would be required to obtain the same weld size as the stainless steel weldment. The...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... occurred in the absence of melting. Although the various regions of a weldment shown in Fig. 1 are for a single-pass weld, similar solidification patterns and compositional differences can be expected to occur in underlying weld beads during multipass applications. Fig. 1 Weld cross section...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... welded, the weld bead exhibited an unusually large amount of reinforcement. Subsequent magnetic particle inspection indicated extensive discontinuities in the weld bead. The first pass of the weld was sectioned, polished, and etched in 5% nital. The macrograph of the welded plate is shown in Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... titanium alloys is characterized by coarse, columnar prior-beta grains that originated during weld solidification. The size and morphology of these grains depend on the nature of the heat flow that occurs during weld solidification. Fig. 9.1 Columnar beta grains in a spot weld of alpha-beta alloy Ti...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... filler metal can be vapor deposited onto the part. Helium and argon gases are used to shield the molten and solidifying weld metal from the atmosphere. Weld metal porosity is lower with helium than it is with argon. However, some argon is required to obtain a smooth bead contour. In small amounts...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... Abstract This appendix provides detailed information on design deficiencies, material and manufacturing defects, and service-life anomalies. It covers ingot-related defects, forging and sheet forming imperfections, casting defects, heat treating defects, and weld discontinuities. It shows how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... effect of coating and welding processes. chemical composition creep-rupture properties microstructure physical properties precipitation hardening superalloys tensile properties solution heat treatment directional solidification...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... waterwall materials. The wastage rates for carbon and low alloy steels have been found to increase to an unacceptable rate for many boilers, particularly those of supercritical units. The current most widely used waterwall protection method against tube wall wastage problems involves weld overlay...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.9781627082914
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... copper fittings for an air conditioner. A finite-element analysis illustrating filling time is shown in Fig. 11.7 . The computer identified side gate location as optimal, thereby ensuring flow toward the opposite corner. Computer simulation is able to locate the gate, cooling channel, vent, and weld...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... cast structures or mill products is required, and welding invariably is needed in casting repair or buildup of structures from castings or mill products. Powder metallurgy processing is used for some applications. At each of these steps, the mechanical and physical properties of the titanium in the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... alloys can be difficult to fusion weld. The copper content in some of the 2 xxx and 7 xxx alloys makes them susceptible to weld cracking during fusion welding operations. Fig. 2.1 Fatigue strength comparison for aluminum. Source: Ref 2.1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... trade study reported an annual cost for H-60 main gearbox corrosion of $10.8 million to the Navy and $6.7 million to the Army, for a total of approximately $17.5 million for 600 helicopters. Conventional repair processes such as welding, plating, or patching with composite material often either...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... 300 μm, and in weld metal, where the small liquid pool allows even faster cooling rates, the spacings can be as small as 100 μm. The diameters of the dendrite main stalks (called primary dendrite arms) are smaller than their spacing, d , by approximately 10 times. The diameter of a human hair is...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... filler wires are used along with argon or helium inert gas. The weld beads normally have a rather fine grain size, averaging less than 0.25 mm (0.01 in.) in diameter. Residual stresses and the tendency for some alloys to crack are minimized by preheating, postweld heating, and stress relieving. In the Mg...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.9781627082617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... exhaustive study of the use of Stead’s reagent for revealing the primary structure of welds [ 5 ]. Magnusson states that the influence of the secondary and tertiary structure must be reduced so that the primary structure can be clearly observed. This can be accomplished by heat treating the specimen prior to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... ) was the result of weld bead undercutting and poor weldment design. Fatigue cracking initiated at the site of the weld toe undercut. This location was a highly stressed area and the location of a large mechanical stress-concentration factor because of the weld toe undercut. Typical causes of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... reduction in residual tensile stresses in the area of the weldment, and the reduction in hardness and changes in the carbide morphology of weld heat-affected zones (HAZ). For refinery reactor vessels, which operate at high temperatures and pressures, 2.25Cr-1Mo steel is widely used. For improved corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... pressure vessels that are part of the propulsion and reaction control systems for rockets and launch boosters. These pressure vessels were fabricated by welding together hemispherical forgings that had been machined to the desired thickness. The Ti-5Al-2.5Sn alloy also has been used for fuel pump impellers...