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water-treatment-related failures

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract This chapter examines boiler tube failures attributed to operation-related causes. It discusses failures due to rapid start-ups, excessive load swing, excessive heat inputs, poor water chemistry control, and water-treatment methods. boiler tubes operation-related failures water...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... problems Rapid start-ups Excessive load swing Excessive heat inputs Failures due to poor water chemistry control Water-treatment-related failures Conventional treatment All volatile treatment (AVT) Lack of quality control or improper quality control: Failures attributed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
..., nitrates, and chlorides impart permanent hardness and form a hard scale, which is difficult to remove. Permanent hardness of water cannot be eliminated merely by the boiling of water and needs chemical treatment. 7.3 Water Chemistry–Related Problems in Power Plants There are three water chemistry...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.9781627082532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... the heat treatment, the pipe welds are water quenched to avoid reprecipitation of the chromium carbides. It is important to note that no intergranular SCC incidents have been reported in the welds of plate rolled and seam-welded pipes that were solution heat treated. 15.5.2 Corrosion-Resistant Cladding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... Abstract This chapter presents an overview of some of the major causes of tool and die failures. The chapter describes fracture and fracture toughness of tool steels, and the influence of factors such as steel quality and primary processing, mechanical design, heat treatment, grinding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... geometries, or assembly stresses from configurations that contain unwanted interference. Inappropriate surface treatments can result in failures, such as the use of cadmium plating on an A286 superalloy fastener subjected to service temperatures above 315 °C (600 °F), because the melting temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... treatment, solvent cleaning, and neutralization and passivation. Loosely adherent scales and debris are normally removed by mechanical cleaning and water flushing, whereas oils and hydrocarbons are removed by alkaline treatment. For removal of the scale, inhibited acids are employed as solvent cleaners...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
..., the dimensional changes after austenitizing and then quenching in water are greater than quenching in oil (Ref 3) . Important Design Aspects The importance of good design cannot be overemphasized. Poor design can cause or promote heat treatment failures before the component is put into service, or it may...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... of the magnetite layer is that, once formed, it protects the tube from subsequent corrosion. In other words, it acts as a passive layer and therefore is desired for longer life of the tube. Treatment of boiler feedwater (BFW) with water treatment chemicals such as hydrazine helps to promote the formation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... 34.5 and 138 MPa (5000 and 20,000 psi). Additionally, oil and gas production from reservoirs under deep ocean waters must enter submarine production pipelines and related equipment. The production environment is quickly cooled from the high temperatures mentioned previously to near freezing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... film exists, which can be seen in Fig. 6 . Fig. 3 Lath (low-carbon) martensite in SAE 8620 alloy steel (Fe, 0.2% C, 0.8% Mn, 0.55% Ni, 0.5% Cr, 0.2% Mo) after heat treatment (954 °C, or 1750 °F, for 1 h, water quench) Fig. 4 High-carbon martensite (0.8% C). Etched with nital...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... values in the lower specification range. Element relationships such as Cu-Mg, Si-Mg, Fe-Si, Fe-Mn, and Zn-Cu-Mg are also important considerations in defining the causes of abnormal mechanical property response to thermal treatment. Mechanical property failure may be caused by structural unsoundness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... eases the resumption of production in such wells. Batch Treatment of Pumping Wells Corrosion problems in pumped wells are directly related to the production volume and water content of producing wells. This will be the case whether the lift method is sucker rod pump, electric submersible pump...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
..., regardless of thickness. The pipe segment is then quenched in circulating water to a temperature below 205 °C (400 °F). Solution heat treatment is generally limited to those weld joints made in the shop where heat treatment facilities are available, because of dimensional tolerance consideration, size...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... quench severity. Water-based polymer fluids are the most common quenchants used for induction hardening of PM parts. Steam Treatment Sintered parts are subjected to steam treatment, wherein controlled oxidaton of the ferrous part is carried out in an atmosphere of superheated steam. As a result...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... to SCC also improves their resistance to intergranular corrosion. For most alloys, however, optimum levels of resistance to these two types of failure require different treatments, and resistance to intergranular corrosion is not a reliable indication of resistance to SCC. The relationship between...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... of precipitation hardening on stress-corrosion cracking of alloy 718 (UNS N07718) and alloy R-41 (UNS N07041) in chloride environments Two-point bend samples, tested for 1008 h Alloy Thermal treatment Hardness Time to failure, h 20.4% MgCl 2 , 177 °C (350 °F) 25% NaCl, 204 °C (400 °F) 718 Mill...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... variation in section. Source: Ref 10 Another possibility for solving heat treatment or service cracking is tool steel selection. Instead of using water-hardening grades, oil-hardening ones are preferred in situations sensitive to quench cracking. In some circumstances, it is possible to apply air...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... and relates them to the physical metallurgy of uranium alloys, and provides a guide to the selection of compositions and heat treatments for applications requiring materials of various strengths. The corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking behaviors of uranium alloys are closely related to alloy...