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water-hardening tool steel

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Image
Published: 01 March 2006
Fig. 1 Cross section of three sizes of water-hardening tool steel (W1) after heating to 800 °C (1475 °F) and quenching in brine. Black rings indicate hardened zones (cases) (65 HRC). Cores range from 38 to 43 HRC. Source: Ref 1 More
Image
Published: 01 June 2008
Fig. 22.4 AISI W4 water-hardening tool steel (0.96C-0.66Mn-0.23Cr), as-received (full annealed). 170 HB. Structure consists of spheroidal cementite in a ferrite matrix. Original magnification: 1000×. Source: Ref 5 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... Abstract The water-hardening steels are either essentially plain carbon steels or very low-alloy carbon steels. As a result, the water-hardening tool steels are the least expensive of tool steels and require strict control of processing and heat treatment to achieve good properties...
Image
Published: 01 January 1998
Fig. 7-6 Microstructures of water-hardening tool steels. (a) Upper bainite (fine, feathery structure) and pearlite (dark nodules). (b) Lower bainite and retained austenite. Courtesy of J.R. Vilella More
Image
Published: 01 January 1998
Fig. 7-13 Hardness as a function of tempering time for water-hardening tool steels quenched from temperatures shown. (a) Shallow-hardening steels: 0.90 to 1.00% C, 0.18 to 0.22% Mn, 0.20 to 0.22% Si, 0.18 to 0.22% V. (b) Medium-hardening steels: 0.90 to 1.00% C, 0.25% Mn, no alloying elements More
Image
Published: 31 December 2020
Fig. 15 Maximum section thicknesses of three classes of water-hardening tool steels that will develop minimum hardness of 60 HRC when oil quenched from various austenitizing temperatures More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... Abstract The low-alloy special-purpose tool steels, designated as group L steels in the AISI classification system, are similar to the water-hardening tool steels but have somewhat greater alloy content. This chapter discusses the metallurgy and performance of low-alloy special-purpose tool...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract There is a fairly wide variety of different tool steels for different applications. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) classification of tool steels includes seven major categories: water-hardening tool steels, shock-resisting tool steels, cold work tool steels, hot work tool...
Image
Published: 31 December 2020
Fig. 16 Effect of tempering temperature on surface hardness of water-hardening tool steels austenitized at three different temperatures and quenched in brine. Specimens held for 1 hour at the tempering temperature in a recirculating-air furnace. Cooled in air to room temperature More
Image
Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 8.22 A normalized water-hardenable AISI W1 tool steel (1.03% C) etched in (a) 2% nital, where some of the pearlite colonies appear as grayish patches, and (b) 4% picral, where the pearlite colonies are etched and the carbides more clearly delineated. 1000× More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... or hot-work tool steels), or heat treatment (for example, water-hardening or oil-hardening tool steels). Table 2-1 lists nine main groups of tool steels and their identifying letter symbols, and Table 2-2 presents the AISI classification and the nominal compositions of the most widely used tool...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... include water-hardening; shock-resisting; oil-hardening cold-work; air-hardening, medium-alloy cold-work; high-carbon, high-chromium cold-work; low-alloy, special-purpose; mold; hot-work; and high-speed tool steels. air-hardening tool steel annealing austenitizing high-carbon tool steel high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... the following way: Cold-worked tool steels Unalloyed and low-alloyed (water- and oil-hardening, shock-resistant) cold-worked tool steels: W-, S-, O-, L-, as well as 6F-type Medium- and high-alloy (air-hardening, high-carbon, and high-chromium) cold-worked tool steels: A-, D- (including powder...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... high-speed, water-hardening, shock-resistant, and hot and cold work tool steels. It discusses the influence of alloy design on the evolution of microstructure and properties during solidification, heat treating, and hardening operations. It also describes critical phase transformations and the effects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
...-hardening tool steels have very low hardenability and therefore must be severely water quenched for hardening. A problem that may readily develop in water-hardening steels is the formation of soft spots due to incomplete martensite formation. These soft spots may result in cracking, especially in large...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... … 0.30–0.55 … … … P21 T51621 0.18–0.22 0.20–0.40 0.20–0.40 0.50 max 3.90–4.25 … … 0.15–0.25 1.05–1.25A1 Water-hardening tool steels W1 T72301 0.70–1.50 (e) 0.10–0.40 0.10–0.40 0.15 max 0.20 max 0.10 max 0.15 max 0.10 max … W2 T72302 0.85–1.50 (e) 0.10–0.40 0.10...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... on the smallest diameter section (see also Chapter 11, “Heat Treating of Tool Steels” ). Fig. 1 Cross section of three sizes of water-hardening tool steel (W1) after heating to 800 °C (1475 °F) and quenching in brine. Black rings indicate hardened zones (cases) (65 HRC). Cores range from 38 to 43 HRC...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... that fell between those of cast iron and wrought iron. These cast steels could be hardened through heat treatment, and in the early 1800s they were the best tools available for cutting and machining other metals. But there was a serious problem: During water quenching these cast steels had a strong tendency...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
..., and molybdenum, which are commonly added to tool steels to provide hardenability and tempering resistance, silicon is a major addition unique to the S-type steels. Silicon provides tempering resistance and also produces, in some tempered conditions, a microstructure with reduced sensitivity to fracture. Tungsten...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... 0.40 ... 0.20 Water 1 (diam) × 2 in. 5 ... 1.05 0.70 0.50 1.60 ... ... Oil 1 (diam) × 3 in. Figures 10-5 and 10-6 show Jominy end-quench curves for O1 and O7 tool steels, respectively. The O1 steel exhibits significantly deeper hardening capacity than does the O7 steel...