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water-hardening tool steel

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract There is a fairly wide variety of different tool steels for different applications. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) classification of tool steels includes seven major categories: water-hardening tool steels, shock-resisting tool steels, cold work tool steels, hot work tool...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... include water-hardening; shock-resisting; oil-hardening cold-work; air-hardening, medium-alloy cold-work; high-carbon, high-chromium cold-work; low-alloy, special-purpose; mold; hot-work; and high-speed tool steels. air-hardening tool steel annealing austenitizing high-carbon tool steel high...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... high-speed, water-hardening, shock-resistant, and hot and cold work tool steels. It discusses the influence of alloy design on the evolution of microstructure and properties during solidification, heat treating, and hardening operations. It also describes critical phase transformations and the effects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... following way: Cold-worked tool steels Unalloyed and low-alloyed (water- and oil-hardening, shock-resistant) cold-worked tool steels: W-, S-, O-, L-, as well as 6F-type Medium- and high-alloy (air-hardening, high-carbon, and high-chromium) cold-worked tool steels: A-, D- (including powder...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
...-resisting steels, low-alloy special-purpose steels, mold steels, and water-hardening steels are also used for non-machining applications. Table 1 lists composition limits for these steels. Powder metallurgy tool steels used in the cutting tool industry are highspeed steel compositions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... … 0.30–0.55 … … … P21 T51621 0.18–0.22 0.20–0.40 0.20–0.40 0.50 max 3.90–4.25 … … 0.15–0.25 1.05–1.25Al Water-hardening tool steels W1 T72301 0.70–1.50 (e) 0.10–0.40 0.10–0.40 0.15 max 0.20 max 0.10 max 0.15 max 0.10 max … W2 T72302 0.85–1.50 (e) 0.10–0.40 0.10...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Relative values of the three most important properties of tool steels Type AISI Wear resistance Toughness Hot hardness Carbon (water hardening) W1 4 7 (shallow hardened) 1 (1095) 4 3 (through hardened) 1 Low alloy L6 3 6 2 Shock resisting S2 2 8 2 Die steels for...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... for tool steels (Ref 1) Group Symbol Water-hardened tool steels W Shock-resistant tool steels S Oil-hardening tool steels O Air-hardening tool steels A High-carbon and high-chromium die steels D Tool steel for application in plastic molds P Cr-, Mo-, or W-alloyed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... nomenclature ( Ref 16.26 ). Table 16.2 Tool steels as classified by AISI Identifying symbol Group Examples W Water hardening W1, W2 S Shock resisting S5, S7 O Oil hardening, cold work O1, O2 A Air hardening, medium alloy, cold work A2, A6, A7 D High carbon, high chromium...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... done only by rapidly quenching in water. Mushet’s discovery of adding alloys to steel to affect the way they could be hardened was a historic milestone in the story of tool making ( FIG. 6.3 ). His technical discovery was so little understood, however, that it did not lead to further advances at the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... Abstract Gas carburizing is known to promote internal oxidation in steel which can adversely affect certain properties. This chapter discusses the root of the problem and its effect on component lifetime and performance. It explains that gas-carburizing atmospheres contain water vapor and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... steels can be much more complicated than for other materials. Machine and tool rigidity, machine power requirements, sharp cutting tools, and optimum lubrication type and amounts are very important. Feed rates need to be sufficiently more aggressive than with carbon steels to prevent work hardening and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... the earliest problems of weld metal corrosion related to ships in arctic waters, where ice abraded the paint to expose bare steel and damaged the anodes, thus rendering the cathodic protection system ineffective. In these cases, it was observed that enhanced corrosion of the weld metal was due to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... die mechanischen Eigenschaften von Einsatzstaählen (Influence of Different Melt Versions on the Mechanical Properties of Case-Hardening Steels) , ZWF , Vol 77 ( No. 4 ), 1982 , p 194 – 199 [Güm 81]: Gümpel P. and Rasche K. , Entwicklungsstand bei Warmarbeitsstaählen...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract The first step in the hardening of steel is getting it hot enough to form austenite, from which martensite can form upon quenching. Not all steels have the same austenitization requirements, however. High-carbon wear-resistant steels, such as bearing and tool steels, require the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... are quenched in water, care should be taken to avoid quench cracking. The molybdenum steels with lower carbon content (4023, 4024, 4027, 4028, 4419, and 4427) usually are not direct hardened. End-quench curves are given in Fig. 7 for some molybdenum steels, and end-quench hardenability limits of 40...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... required for the transformation characteristics of the specific steel being hardened. For example, in certain high-alloy tool steels, the rate of transformation provided by quenching in still air is sufficient to transform the austenite to a completely martensitic structure. For most steels, however, water...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... magnification 1000×. Source: Ref 9.6 Fig. 9.15 Lath martensite in water-quenched low-alloy steel. 2% nital etch. Original magnification 500× Source: Ref 9.6 The relative ability of a ferrous alloy to form martensite is called hardenability . Hardenability is commonly measured as the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... steel. Source: Ref 3 Steels are hardened by austenitizing, quenching, and then tempering to their final hardness. Since the composition of steels varies quite a bit, it is important to: (1) understand the maximum section thickness that can be hardened in a specific quench medium (e.g., water or...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... . Alloying elements increase the hardenability by allowing the steels to harden under somewhat slower cooling rates. The Jominy end-quench test is a simple way to assess the hardenability of a steel. Water is sprayed on the end of a bar that has been heated to form austenite ( Fig. 7.7 ). This creates a...