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water drop impingement

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses five forms of mechanically assisted degradation of metals: erosion, fretting, fretting fatigue, cavitation and water drop impingement, and corrosion fatigue. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms and the factors affecting these forms of degradation. erosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... surface due to continued exposure to impacts by liquid drops or jets” ( Ref 8 ). The operative words in this definition are “impacts by liquid drops or jets.” Liquid impingement erosion connotes repeated impacts or collisions between the surface being eroded and small discrete liquid bodies...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... the water flow requirement. Most quench systems use centrifugal pumps, which are sized by pressure drop and fluid flow requirements. The sizing of the pump versus the operating pressure is important not only for maximizing flow but also for producing long motor life. A given centrifugal pump supplying...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... Water has continued to be an excellent quenchant when used appropriately. Water is cheap and readily available. Figure 6.3 shows cooling rate versus temperature for water quenchants with moderate agitation of the water. Note the substantial drop in cooling rate from 26 to 40 °C (80 to 100 °F). Figure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... with a glue made from water-regenerated (hydrated) inorganic oxides. Repetitive mechanical forces from impinging droplets can fracture the glue and sand, or aggregate from the concrete can be carried by the liquid that flows away after impact. Fig. 4.3 Water droplet erosion of concrete sidewalk...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... operation Carbon restore Quenching speed is too slow Lower temperature of water or polymer quenchant Lower concentration of polymer quenchant Increase impingement of change method of application Change type to faster-speed quenchant Austenitizing temperature is too low Use a longer heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... and amplitude-drop techniques, the height, length, and location of intergranular cracks can be accurately determined anywhere along the walls of the pipe as well as in weld areas. boiling water reactor crack detection crack height crack length intergranular stress-corrosion cracking reactor piping...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... remelting (ESR). In VAR, the material to be remelted is cast into a cylindrical electrode and placed inside a cylindrical water-cooled vacuum chamber. A high-current direct current (dc) arc is established between the electrode and a starter plate at the bottom of the chamber. The end of the electrode...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... with a propane torch to an orange color for approximately 20 s and immediately quenched in a beaker of water. The temperature produces austenite over a short length of the rods, and the quench converts it to martensite + retained austenite. If the first rod is placed in a vice with the discolored heated section...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...., retained fluids and/or solids, contaminated water used for hydrotesting) to sustained fluid flow (e.g., erosion/cavitation in components moving in or contacted by fluids, as well as splashing or droplet impingement). Common examples of stagnation include non-draining structures, dead ends, badly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
.... erosion erosion-corrosion material selection 8.1 Introduction Industrial plants are often involved in processes where gas streams are laden with particles. Metallic components can suffer severe metal wastage when subjected to constant impingement by this particle-laden gas stream under high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... that is equal to the product of the object volume and the density of the liquid. The difference in weight between an object weighed in air and its weight when suspended in water is equal to the object volume in cubic centimeters times the density of water. Approximating the density of water as unity: V...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
.... The work is rotated until the surface reaches the desired temperature or until the heat penetrates to the desired depth. At this time, the flames are extinguished and the quenching water turned on, or the part is dropped into a quenching tank. Sometimes multiple torches are used to ensure rapid and uniform...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., metal surfaces covered with (oftentimes, sulfur-containing) corrosion products will be exposed to air and moisture. This can lead to pitting and other forms of localized corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking unless preventive measures are implemented. When equipment is washed with water during...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
..., as evidenced by the wide-scale use of plastic sump pumps for household and commercial service. These pumps can move sand-laden water effortlessly for decades. Polyurethanes are popular for commercial pumps. Plastics, in general, are not resistant to 90° solid-particle impingement, as specified in the ASTM...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... and 2 hours. Quench Delay It is necessary to limit the quench delay time to 10 to 15 seconds to ensure superior properties. The batch-type drop-bottom furnaces and the quench arm of continuous furnaces ensure that these times are maintained. Quench Water Temperature and Control Cold-water...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
..., intended to reduce NOx emissions, accelerates tube wall wastage. It also covers circumferential cracking in furnace waterwalls, thermal fatigue cracking induced by waterlances and water cannons, superheater-reheater corrosion, and erosion in fluidized-bed boilers. coal-fired boilers combustion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... or through impingement and abrasion. Guidelines for velocity limits with respect to erosional considerations are given in API 14E in terms of the density of the fluid medium ( Ref 33 ). Importance of Water/Gas/Oil Ratios It is important to account for the beneficial effects of hydrocarbons...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... and its alloys exhibited resistance to corrosion and erosion from a wide range of industrial chemicals, natural waters, and gases. This corrosion and erosion resistance resulted the use of titanium in myriad nonaerospace industrial, commercial, and medical applications. Material Availability...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... to a slow air cool, depending on the composition of the steel. Typical hardnesses obtained by quenching in air or water are given in Table 5 . Flame hardening involves the direct impingement of oxyfuel gas flames from suitably designed and positioned burners onto the surface area to be hardened...