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water chemistry control

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract This chapter examines boiler tube failures attributed to operation-related causes. It discusses failures due to rapid start-ups, excessive load swing, excessive heat inputs, poor water chemistry control, and water-treatment methods. boiler tubes operation-related failures water...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... problems Rapid start-ups Excessive load swing Excessive heat inputs Failures due to poor water chemistry control Water-treatment-related failures Conventional treatment All volatile treatment (AVT) Lack of quality control or improper quality control: Failures attributed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Hydrogen attack occurs more often in subcritical drum boilers that use a recirculating steam-generating system. Adequate control of water chemistry is critical to avoid internal deposition and corrosion of boiler tubes. The water chemistry is typically controlled by (a) water purification to remove...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...). The contribution of oxidizing water chemistries produced by radiolysis is also indicated by the strong dependence of cracking on dissolved oxygen at a fluence of approximately 3 × 10 21 n/cm 2 in Fig. 6.2(b) . Fig. 6.2 Dependence of IASCC on fast neutron fluence for (a) creviced control-blade sheath...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... in water also lead to the fouling of heat transfer surfaces and eventually lead to failure of the tubes by overheating ( Ref 7.1 ). Therefore, quality control of the boiler water is of utmost importance and can be ensured through control of the chemistry of the water entering the boiler. The purposes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... through a casting facility and the key locations and areas of control. Prepared sand consists of blending new sand with a bentonite binder, sea-coal, and water, as shown in Figure 14.1 . 14.3.1 Sand System Variables Sand systems experience variability that impacts the consistency of the sand...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
.... The type of melting equipment is determined by the requirements of the foundry and the type of product produced. Some important considerations are: the ability to accurately control chemistry; the need for refining; selection of raw materials; the ease of changing alloy types; pollution control equipment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... discussion of timers, with emphasis on open-loop timing systems. induction heating power-timing devices temperature-control devices vapor-coolant systems water-cooling systems Besides the power supply, other auxiliary pieces of equipment are required in most induction heating installations...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... substratum more localized than it would be in water with the same bulk chemistry but without microorganisms. This effect is a consequence of the heterogeneity of the biofilm, which in turn leads to an increase in the variability of the chemical environment from place to place along the metal surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... almost always enhances crack growth in glasses and ceramics as well as why environmental molecules similar in chemistry to water (for example, NH 3 and N 2 H 4 ) also can participate in the crack-tip reaction. The particular crack growth model that is applicable seems to depend on the type of atomic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... oxygen, intergranular SCC will occur in the sensitized HAZ of types 304 and 316 stainless steel ( Ref 15.18 ). If the oxygen content is reduced to levels below 20 ppb, intergranular SCC is extremely difficult to initiate. This reduction can be accomplished by hydrogen water chemistry, which controls...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
..., and the effects of iron contamination on corrosion resistance. gas atomization powder characteristics stainless steel powder water atomization THE GOAL in stainless powder manufacture is to control fundamental powder properties, both chemical and physical, such as composition, particle size...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... of a boiler tube. Improper boiler water chemistry further aggravates the problem. Case Study 35—Failure Investigation of Low-Temperature Reheater Tubes Background Details Low-temperature reheater (LTRH) tubes of a power boiler were damaged while at the workshop. Five tubes were found damaged while...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... controlled by federal regulations. Therefore, it is advantageous to use water-based rather than organic-solvent-based adhesives. The use of water as a solvent results in lower cost, nonflammability, and lower toxicity. It also makes it possible to vent drying ovens directly into the atmosphere. In addition...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... of Witwatersrand The transition between pitting and cracking depends on the same parameters that control SCC, that is, the electrochemistry at the base of the pit, pit geometry, chemistry of the material, and stress or strain rate at the base of the pit. A detailed description of the relationship between...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...×. Courtesy of S.J. Lennon, ESCOM, and F.P.A. Robinson, University of the Witwatersrand The transition between pitting and cracking is dependent on the same parameters that control SCC—that is, the electrochemistry at the base of the pit, pit geometry, chemistry of the material, and stress or strain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... using wet chemistries to etch the epoxy encapsulant. The type of epoxy used and the composition of the die and bonds determine the best etchant. Typically, injection molded devices are etched with yellow or red fuming nitric acid. Yellow fuming or 90% nitric is used to expose the wire loops then red...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... of the nitriding sensor has significantly contributed to nitriding process control ( Ref 8 , 9 ). This system has been designed using the principle of a solid-state electrolyte, measuring variations in the magnetic and electrical properties of a steel as temperature increases and surface chemistry changes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... and the obvious “channel” nature of the freckles in the longitudinal plane. As is discussed in the subsequent sections of this chapter, melting methods for specific alloys are selected primarily on three criteria: economics, melt segregation requirements, and degree of chemistry control required. Table...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... economical alternative compared with pelletizing, which is a pellet-forming process. The sintered charge is fed into the top of the blast furnace either by a double bell system or a valve-controlled hopper system. The systems are designed for proper charge distribution while preventing the escape of flue...