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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the effects of corrosion on boiler tube surfaces exposed to water and steam. It describes the process of corrosion, the formation of scale, and the oxides of iron from which it forms. It addresses the primary types of corrosion found in boiler environments...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract Water chemistry is a factor in nearly all boiler tube failures. It contributes to the formation of scale, biofilms, and sludge, determines deposition rates, and drives the corrosion process. This chapter explains how water chemistry is managed in boilers and describes the effect...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract This chapter examines the stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) failure of stainless steel pipe welds in boiling water reactor (BWR) service. It explains where most of the failures have occurred and provides relevant details about the materials of construction, fabrication techniques...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract This chapter describes how ultrasonic testing came to be a viable method for evaluating intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in large-diameter stainless steel pipe welds in boiling water reactor service. Intergranular SCC can be difficult to detect using nondestructive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... Abstract The water-hardening steels are either essentially plain carbon steels or very low-alloy carbon steels. As a result, the water-hardening tool steels are the least expensive of tool steels and require strict control of processing and heat treatment to achieve good properties...
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Published: 01 October 2011
Fig. 5.29 Water atomization system. (a) Various stages of the water atomization process. (b) Large-scale system (1,000 to 100,000 tons/year) More
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Published: 01 June 2007
Fig. 3.1 Examples of water-atomized stainless steel powder. SEM of (a) water-atomized 409L powder, (b) water-atomized 316 stainless powder of high apparent density (slightly more rounded edges); original magnified 100 times More
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Published: 01 August 2015
Fig. 3.8 Calcium-clogged water paths due to high-conductivity water. Source: Ref 7 More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 10.2 Same water and water/steam circulation in the furnace waterwall tubes as in Fig. 10.1 with illustration of the furnace waterwall tubes. Source: Ref 1 . Courtesy of Babcock & Wilcox More
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Published: 01 November 2013
Fig. 15 Sectional views of conventional (non-water-cooled) and water-cooled cupolas. The conventional type shown is refractory lined. Water-cooled types incorporate either an enclosed jacket or an open cascade flow. Source: Ref 5 More
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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 5.23 Crack growth rate in pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary water simulant as a function of nickel content and temperature. Source: Ref 5.101 More
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Published: 01 July 2009
Fig. 26.3 Effect of water concentration in a carbon dioxide-water mixture on the oxidation of beryllium at 650 °C (1200 °F). The total pressure of the tests was kept at 11.2 atm. Source: Phennah et al. 1963 More
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Published: 01 November 2019
Figure 18 Water used to establish the upper capacitor plate for endpoint detection over the lead dress. The process is set for automatic stop when the endpoint signal exceeds the set threshold. More
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Published: 01 May 2018
FIG. 13.5 Twin roll casting uses two copper water-cooled, counter-rotating rolls. The Castrip process produces a thin strip that requires minimal rolling to achieve finished size. Source: www.castrip.com . More
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Published: 01 August 2005
Fig. 3.7 Relationship between dew point and fraction of water vapor in an atmosphere. Drying agents are considerably less effective than low temperatures at reducing the moisture level. Note: vol% = ppm × 10 4 More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 5.10 Drying marks. The small spots are drying marks from water droplets. Material is “rough iron” (See “ Historical Direct Reduction Products ” section of Chapter 2, “Processes in Steel Production,” in this book) with many large nonmetallic inclusions. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 5.13 Stains caused by water retained between the metallic matrix and the graphite in an oxidized cast iron. Sometimes it can take a few seconds or minutes for water to leave cavities. Inverted optical microscopes help accelerate the water exudation. This contributes to damaging More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 2.22 Pearlite nodules in a partially transformed water-quenched AISI/SAE 1060 steel. Matrix is martensite. 4% picral etch. 250× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 2.37 Retained austenite (white etching phase) in a water-quenched 0.93% C-1.45% Mn steel. Gray etching phase is plate martensite. 2% nital etch. 1000× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 3.63 Microstructure of a gray cast iron water pipe with corrosion penetrating below the surface along graphite flake networks (cells) (see arrows). (a) unetched, 50× and (b) 4% picral etch, 500× More