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void volume

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
...Abstract Abstract Many of the structural characteristics of steel products are a result of changes that occur during solidification, particularly volume contractions and solute redistribution. This chapter discusses the solidification process and how it affects the quality and behaviors...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
...Abstract Abstract Analyzing the structure of composite materials is essential for understanding how the part will perform in service. Assessing fiber volume variations, void content, ply orientation variability, and foreign object inclusions helps in preventing degradation of composite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
.... It is known that the morphology of the void and the location in the composite significantly affect the mechanical properties, as does the size, number, and volume of the voids. There are multiple causes of voids in composite materials, and these have been generally categorized as voids that are due...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... and fiber content. Chemical matrix digestion assumes zero void content and determines fiber volume content by matrix digestion. The chemical reactions involved must be known for this technique to be useful, because the digestion of fiber by itself is liable to be different than in the laminate. Hot...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... density. Molecular scale voids, known collectively as free volume, exist within the polymeric macromolecular structure. Applied stress serves to straighten the polymer chains and perhaps to redistribute the free volume so that sizable microvoids are formed. Depending on the nature of the polymer...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... 3 C 0.8–0.98 MnS … Grain boundaries 0.27 Average value Reversible Same as dislocation 0.55–0.61 (high angle) Reversible or irreversible Twins … Reversible A few interatomic spacings Internal surfaces (voids) … … … Volume Voids >0.22 … Dimension of the defect...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... is caused by the reduction in effective area by pore volume fraction and by stress concentrations at voids leading to premature failure. Porosity in aluminum is caused by the precipitation of hydrogen from liquid solution or by shrinkage during solidification, and more usually by a combination...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... Interply and intraply voids and porosity Fig. 7.22 Effects of prepreg physical quality Fig. 7.23 Potential for void formation. Source: Ref 5 Fig. 7.14 Effect of fiber volume on bulk compressive stress. Source: Ref 3 Fig. 7.24 Typical carbon/epoxy cure cycle...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... ports Commonly used to assure complete wet-out Sometimes used sequentially to fill very long parts Internal rubber/elastomeric tooling Rubber inserts used to provide very high compaction High fiber volumes (>65%) achievable Very low void contents typical Tooling must...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... solder joints. Image provided by Phoenix Xx-ray. Figure 7 (a) Volume rendering of a flip chip packaging with voxel size of 7 um. (b) Volume rendering of two neighboring BGA solder joints with cross sectional images to show solder contact with pad. Figure 8 Optical image...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... ones are those generated by the interaction of gas and metal that promote the appearance of voids. In general, there are two kinds of voids: those generated by gas, and shrinkage pores. Porosity Caused by Gas Porosity Caused by Shrinkage Pores Among the several kinds of defects that may occur...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
...-axis winding also enhances tube stability and improves rotational properties. The same basic characteristics will be found on plots of tensile strength versus winding angles. Fig. 7.4 Young’s modulus for graphite/epoxy laminates. f v , fiber volume Figure 7.5 demonstrates that the void...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... of the total feedstock volume. This is different from a formulation based on weight percentages. Porosity implies voids in the powder or feedstock. Pores effectively have no mass, so they dilate the volume to reduce density. Fractional porosity, ε, is calculated from the actual density, ρ...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... properties of filament-wound Kevlar 49/epoxy Property Kevlar 49/epoxy S-glass/epoxy Density, lb/in –3 0.044 0.069 Fiber volume, % 65 65 Tensile strength, ksi 223 197 Tensile modulus, msi 13.2 8.8 PV / W , 10 6 4.1 3.0 Relative fatigue performance at 90% of ultimate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... is a highly voided, spongy structure of material oriented across its width. For a craze to form from a previously undisturbed glassy matrix, considerable molecular mobility must somehow be introduced into a structure in which the polymer chains are essentially stiff. A possible scenario for introducing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... K Ic by temper embrittlement Sulfide inclusions and coarse carbides Decrease K Ic by promoting crack or void nucleation High carbon content (>0.25%) Decrease K Ic by easily nucleating cleavage Twinned martensite Decrease K Ic due to brittleness Martensite content...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
.... and Bernstein H. , Computer Calculation of Phase Diagrams , Academic Press , New York , 1970 3.5 Roberts C.S. , Effect of Carbon on the Volume Fractions and Lattice Parameters of Retained Austenite and Martensite , Trans. TMS-AIME , Vol 197 , 1953 , p 203 10.1007/BF03397477 3.6...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... detected by radiography Fig. 12.15 Voids in foaming adhesive Fig. 12.16 Typical skin-to-core unbonds Fig. 12.17 Infrared thermography. IR, infrared. Source: Ref 2 Fig. 12.18 Infrared detection of water in a honeycomb assembly Abstract Abstract This chapter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.9781627083386
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... temperatures. The large differences between total and true elongation are a function of crack volume and distribution during tertiary creep. Stress-rupture ductility is an important factor in alloy selection, because premature failures have resulted from lack of ductility during tertiary creep. Since component...