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void nucleation

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... possess relatively wide freezing ranges can be prone to void formation (porosity) during casting, while alloy compositions near eutectic melting points where the freezing range is much narrower can have clear advantages in casting specific shapes or geometries under certain conditions. This is a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... result in shorter fatigue lives at a low stress level, due to damage induced by the higher stress levels. Fatigue cracks almost always initiate at free surfaces, usually external surfaces but also internal surfaces if the metal contains defects such as voids and cracked second-phase particles. Common...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... surface film. It describes bulk and surface reactions that contribute to SCC, including dissolution, mass transport, absorption, diffusion, and embrittlement, and their role in crack nucleation and growth. It also discusses crack tip chemistry, grain-boundary interactions, and the effect of stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... pressure that helps to keep volatiles dissolved in solution. If the resin pressure drops below the volatile vapor pressure, then volatiles will come out of solution and form voids. Referring to the cure cycle shown in Fig. 7.24 , the second ramp portion of this cycle is critical from a void nucleation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the causes and effects of ductile and brittle fracture and their key differences. It describes the characteristics of ductile fracture, explaining how microvoids develop and coalesce into larger cavities that are rapidly pulled apart, leaving bowl-shaped voids or...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... explains how steel shrinks as it solidifies, causing issues such as pipe and voids, and how differences in the solubility of solid and liquid steel lead to compositional heterogeneities or segregation. It describes the dendritic nature of solidification, peritectic and eutectic reactions, microporosity...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... with rupture failures. Since it is not really a creep-dominated failure mode, it will not be considered further in this section. Transgranular fractures can occur during creep when the stress levels and strain levels are fairly high. Voids nucleate, usually around inclusions, and then grow and coalesce...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... coarse carbides Decrease K Ic by promoting crack or void nucleation High carbon content (>0.25%) Decrease K Ic by easily nucleating cleavage Twinned martensite Decrease K Ic due to brittleness Martensite content in quenched steels Increase K Ic Ferrite and pearlite in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... be considered further in this section. Transgranular fractures can occur during creep when the stress levels and strain levels are fairly high. Voids nucleate, usually around inclusions, and then grow and coalesce until fracture occurs. This type of fracture is very similar to ductile fracture modes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... the amount of craze thickening but has been estimated to be approximately 50 to 100% in a well-developed craze section. As the craze thickens, its growth in the lateral dimensions occurs by additional void nucleation at its leading edge. New craze matter is generated at the craze tip as a result...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Decrease K Ic by increasing the tendency to cleave Impurities (P, S, As, Sn) Decrease K Ic by temper embrittlement Sulfide inclusions and coarse carbides Decrease K Ic by promoting crack or void nucleation High carbon content (>0.25%) Decrease K Ic by easily nucleating cleavage...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... most important ones are those generated by the interaction of gas and metal that promote the appearance of voids. In general, there are two kinds of voids: those generated by gas, and shrinkage pores. Among the several kinds of defects that may occur during the casting process and that are...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... carbides Decrease K Ic by increasing the tendency to cleave Impurities (P, S, As, Sn) Decrease K Ic by temper embrittlement Sulfide inclusions and coarse carbides Decrease K Ic by promoting crack or void nucleation High carbon content (>0.25%) Decrease K Ic by easily nucleating...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... actual outer surface zone consists of retained austenite, appearing as the white nonetching constituent in Fig. 3.32(a) . The retained austenite has a hardness of 298 HK (Knoop). There are also many voids that developed on the austenite grain boundaries. These voids are the result of excess molecular...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... serves as a nucleation site for crazes, voids, or shear bands and results in a decreased threshold for crack inception. For example, HIPS studies ( Ref 5 ) have shown an increased resistance to crack propagation but a degraded resistance to crack inception when compared to the neat polystyrene resin...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... support both models. Important earlier models include the pressure theory of Zapffe and Sims ( Ref 3.13 ) and the surface energy theory of Petch and Stables ( Ref 3.14 ). The pressure theory centers around the concept that molecular hydrogen precipitates in preexisting voids in the metal. Pressure is...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... g . This restricts the nucleation of voids, suppresses the elastic recovery of the fiber bed, and helps to maintain the desired dimensions. Finally, pressure during the process provides the driving force to put the layers in intimate contact, pushes them together, and further helps to impregnate the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... The brittle fracture of glassy thermoplastics has been the subject of many studies. Several workers have investigated the growth of crazes to gain an insight into the mechanism of crack nucleation and growth. Evidence of void coalescence caused by fibril failure in PS is reported in Ref 12 . Newton’s...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... cracks Voids formed on grain boundaries or wedge-shaped cracks at grain triple points Reaction scales or internal precipitation Some cold flow in last stages of failure Contributing factors Load exceeded the strength of the part Check for proper alloy and processing by hardness...