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vacuum pumps

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... of approximately 900 °C (1650 °F). See Ref 17.6 for more discussion. Plasma and Vacuum Carburizing Atmospheric pressure is 760 mm of mercury, or 14.7 lb/in. 2 . If electrodes are sealed into either end of a glass tube, the pressure inside the tube is reduced to between 1 to 20 mm with a vacuum pump...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... Capital cost, $1000s Comments Thermal, air 20 120 h cycle, applicable to oxide powders Thermal, inert 40 Heated retort, requires gas flow Vacuum 55 and up Requires cold trap, mechanical pumped system Sublimation 40 Large chilled vacuum device, slow process Wicking 40 8 h cycle...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... . The wooden pattern is mounted on a hollow pattern plate with connection to a vacuum pump. Fine holes of 1 to 1.5 mm (0.04 to 0.06 in.) diameter are drilled through the pattern to communicate with the vacuum chamber. Frame 2 . A plastic sheet is spread above the pattern and softened by heating...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... oxygen contamination through leaking pump seals, casing and process vents, open hatches, open handling (as in mud pits during drilling, trucking, and so on), and in seawater-injection systems highly likely. Also, failure of oxygen-removal processes (gas stripping and chemical scavenging) is a relatively...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... these conditions, the amount of original air remaining in the work chamber is approximately 0.1%. This degree of vacuum can normally be obtained by “pumping down” with a mechanical pump. There are, however, some heat treating operations involving highly alloyed materials that require a “harder” vacuum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.9781627082808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
.... Outgassing during production is thus required. Typically, during outgassing, each tube rests on a rolling cart which proceeds through a long oven. The cart contains its own vacuum pumping system which exhausts the air in the tube as it proceeds through the oven. The cart also carries a work coil which...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... is supplied from high-pressure tube trailers, and nitrogen is drawn from a liquid nitrogen tank, pressurized by a cryogenic pump and gasified in a high-pressure vaporizer. Fig. 4.11 Gas supply systems for cold spray processing. Helium from the tube trailer on the left; nitrogen from the liquid nitrogen...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... metal such as lead or tin is heated in a small glass beaker. When the metal is melted, the top of the beaker is attached to a vacuum pump that pulls the air out of the beaker. This reduces the pressure above the liquid metal, creating a vacuum there. What one observes next is that small gas bubbles...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Chemical analysis of (1) monolayers on surfaces made by in situ fracturing, and (2) low- Z elements on surfaces cleaned by in situ ion etching ~100 nm (Auger) 10 nm (SEM mode) ~100 nm (Auger) 1–3 μm (EDS) Requires ultrahigh vacuum and careful surface preparation; can also detect electron loss signal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... are used to support the preforms during the initial stages of infiltration. Vacuum pumps are used to control the process pressure. This section covers three types of PIP processes: the Space Shuttle C-C process, the conventional PIP process, and the sol-gel infiltration and pyrolysis process...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... Vacuum monitoring No Yes Die spray and plunger lubrication Yes Special lubes Metal fill Doser, pump, robotic ladler Vacuum fill preferred, doser acceptable Alloys 380 and 383 Special alloys listed Shrink porosity/oxides Reduced potential Very low potential Strength, ductility...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... , March 1963 36. Nunn G.L. and Hamilton B.E. , Well Treatment with Inhert Gas—Inert Gas Squeeze for Corrosion Control , Mater. Perform. , Vol 6 ( No. 5 ), May 1967 , p 37 – 40 37. Evans S. and Doran C.R. , “ Batch Treatment of Sucker Rod Pumped Wells,” paper...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
...-velocity water jets. The slurry of powder and water is pumped to a first-stage dewatering device (e.g., cyclone, magnetic system, etc.), which often feeds a second-stage (e.g., vacuum filter) dewatering unit to reduce drying energy use. In alloy systems where water atomization is not a practical...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... the furnace or, more commonly, by charging the furnace through hoppers lowered through a large vacuum lock (bulk charger) located over the crucible. The furnace is capable of quickly pumping down to or maintaining vacuum levels below 100 μm (and often into the <10 μm) range. The virgin material is melted...
Book Chapter

By Eren Billur
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... a small cylinder and pump to move the slide and create vacuum in the large cylinder to achieve prefill ( Ref 12.2 ). Direct Drive Direct drive (also known as pump drive) in a hydraulic press refers to a hydraulic circuit where the high-pressure fluid is supplied only by pump(s) ( Fig. 12.10...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... casting, low pressure permanent mold casting, cast-forge process A 356 T6 Upper and lower control arms Gravity permanent mold casting, low pressure permanent mold casting A 356 T6 Cradle cross members Low pressure permanent mold casting, vacuum die casting A 356 T6, Silafont 36 T5, Mercalloy T5...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... appears to have separated from the rest of the microstructure. Source: Ref 21 Fig. 22 Cavitation damage to an ACI CN-7M stainless steel cast pump impeller used to pump ammonium nitrate solution at 140 °C (280 °F). Courtesy of A.R. Wilfley and Sons, Inc., Pump Division Fig. 24...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... be placed in a chamber that is sufficiently large to manipulate the gun or the workpiece. Out-of-vacuum units usually involve shrouding the workpiece; a partial vacuum (10 –2 torr, or 13 Pa) is obtained in the work area by mechanical pumps. Lasers can be used to perform selective hardening...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.9781627083355
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5