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vacuum melting processes

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... oxygen decarburization melting, vacuum induction melting, vacuum arc remelting, and electroslag remelting. It also addresses related issues such as consumable remelt quality, control anomalies, melt pool characteristics, and melt-related defects, and includes a section that discusses the processes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses the processes, procedures, and equipment used in the production of iron, steel, aluminum, and titanium alloys. It describes the design and operation of melting and refining furnaces, including blast furnaces, basic oxygen and electric arc furnaces, vacuum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Abstract Casting is the most economical processing route for producing titanium parts, and unlike most metals, the properties of cast titanium are on par with those of wrought. This chapter covers titanium melting and casting practices -- including vacuum arc remelting, consumable electrode arc...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
..., crucible, and vacuum melting, and common casting techniques such as sand casting, plaster and shell casting, evaporative pattern casting, investment casting, permanent mold casting, cold and hot chamber die casting, squeeze casting, semisolid metal processing, and centrifugal casting. casting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... controllers and heat-regulating devices. Integration of control functions is illustrated with examples related to heating of steel slabs, surface hardening of steel parts, vacuum induction melting for casting operations, and process optimization for electric-demand control. Distributed control within larger...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... the induction line, the strip is air cooled and then passed over water-cooled rolls prior to coiling at a temperature close to ambient. Probably the most basic vacuum induction process involves metal melting. Figure 11.26 illustrates a small laboratory setup utilizing a 20-kW, 10-kHz power supply capable...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
..., such as titanium and aluminum. Consequently, existing superalloys, for example, Waspaloy, gained significant amounts of strength by application of the vacuum melting process. Concurrently, the availability of vacuum melting made a new generation of cast, age-hardenable nickel-base superalloys, such as IN-713, more...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... and a stainless steel company with the vacuum melting and mill processing capabilities. In the United States in the late 1940s/early 1950s, a number of companies entered the titanium business, with strong government support. A pilot unit created in 1947 at DuPont expanded production to 800,000 kg (1.8 million...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., wire, and die forgings. Impurity concentrations and inclusions are kept to a minimum by double vacuum melt processing. Unlike conventional steels, the manganese and silicon concentrations are also kept close to zero, because both reduce austenite grain-boundary cohesion. AerMet 100 has good weldability...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... and the mold was necessary to eliminate moisture and to obtain sound castings. Fig. 18.5 Direct chill casting process for copper-beryllium. Source: Brush Wellman Ivanov and Shmelev [1958] studied both static and centrifugal casting in a vacuum induction furnace. Melting was done in a beryllia...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... of appropriate chemistry is melted by an arc in a vacuum and solidified in a water-cooled crucible. The process is capable of high melt rates with titanium, but steady-state solidification is not possible, and the molten metal pool is relatively deep. Fig. 4.4 Schematic of a vacuum arc remelting furnace...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... of quality in a cost-effective manner. These alloy production methods may consist of traditional air melting practices, vacuum melting methods, or powder production techniques. Each of these processes has its own set of advantages and limitations, and examples of each are discussed in detail in this chapter...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... elements are 100 ppm carbon, 200 ppm oxygen, 100 ppm nitrogen, and only 15 ppm hydrogen. Niobium and its alloys are protected from these impurities by melting and casting in vacuum or by processing in sacrificial molybdenum containers. Small alloying additions of zirconium and yttrium are added to tie up...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
..., and grades of commercially pure titanium and alpha and near-alpha, alpha-beta, and beta titanium alloys. It describes primary and secondary fabrication processes, including melting, forging, forming, heat treating, casting, machining, and joining as well as powder metallurgy and direct metal deposition...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
.... These processes are similar to flame and induction hardening, except that the need for quenchants is eliminated as long as a sufficient size workpiece is being used. Laser melting requires higher power densities than the levels used for laser transformation hardening. The workpiece is often made...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
.... , The Physical and Chemical Processes of Vacuum and Glow Discharge Carburizing , Plasma Heat Treatment, Science and Technology , PYC Edition , 1987 , p 58 – 71 22.22 Pacheco J. , “ Fatigue Resistance of Plasma and Gas Carburized SAE 8719 Steel ,” M.S. thesis T-3750, Colorado School of Mines...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... Abstract Binder removal approaches involve various combinations of heat, solvents, vacuum, and pressure. In each variant, the goal is binder removal without component damage. This chapter addresses the factors that control success, showing how process decisions depend on the powder and binder...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... solubility of carbon in the FCC structure (austenite, refer to Fig. 1.3 ). Iron-carbon alloys with higher carbon content will have a lower melting point, are adequate to casting processes, and normally are called cast irons . The addition of other alloying elements affects this limit. For this reason...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... to superalloys. It describes the gas, vacuum, and centrifugal atomization processes used to make commercial superalloy powders. It explains how the powders are consolidated into preforms or billets using hot isostatic pressing, extrusion, or a combination of the two. It also provides information on spray forming...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
...-state welding creates the same result as fusion welding, without producing the formerly melted area. This concept is vitally important, because cast structures (result of fusion welding) are not desirable in many instances of superalloy operation. There are many solid-state processes and intermediate...