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vacuum melting

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
..., crucible, and vacuum melting, and common casting techniques such as sand casting, plaster and shell casting, evaporative pattern casting, investment casting, permanent mold casting, cold and hot chamber die casting, squeeze casting, semisolid metal processing, and centrifugal casting. casting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... oxygen decarburization melting, vacuum induction melting, vacuum arc remelting, and electroslag remelting. It also addresses related issues such as consumable remelt quality, control anomalies, melt pool characteristics, and melt-related defects, and includes a section that discusses the processes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses the processes, procedures, and equipment used in the production of iron, steel, aluminum, and titanium alloys. It describes the design and operation of melting and refining furnaces, including blast furnaces, basic oxygen and electric arc furnaces, vacuum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... vacuum induction melting, vacuum arc melting, and electron beam melting, and some of the ways they have been used to cast beryllium alloys. The chapter also includes information on metal purification and grain refinement procedures. beryllium casting grain refinement ingots melting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Abstract Casting is the most economical processing route for producing titanium parts, and unlike most metals, the properties of cast titanium are on par with those of wrought. This chapter covers titanium melting and casting practices -- including vacuum arc remelting, consumable electrode arc...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... controllers and heat-regulating devices. Integration of control functions is illustrated with examples related to heating of steel slabs, surface hardening of steel parts, vacuum induction melting for casting operations, and process optimization for electric-demand control. Distributed control within larger...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... of superalloy development was characterized by process optimization. In 1952, Falih N. Darmara introduced commercial vacuum melting technology, with the first vacuum-melted alloys beginning to appear in approximately 1955. Both vacuum induction melting (VIM) and vacuum arc re-melting allowed the charge...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... superalloys became the predominant alloys of choice for the most strength-critical applications. The development of vacuum melting technology for superalloys provided for a quantum leap in capability. Oxygen (and nitrogen) reduction enhanced strength and improved the efficiency of hardener additions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... of quality in a cost-effective manner. These alloy production methods may consist of traditional air melting practices, vacuum melting methods, or powder production techniques. Each of these processes has its own set of advantages and limitations, and examples of each are discussed in detail in this chapter...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... by powder metallurgy (PM) techniques but are usually made by consumable electrode vacuum arc melting or by electron beam melting. Ingots are hot worked at 790 to 1205 °C (1450 to 2200 °F), followed by cold working and forming at 205 to 315 °C (400 to 600 °F). Niobium alloys can be recrystallized at 1010...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... To obtain the desired fracture toughness, all of these steels are vacuum melted. The mechanical properties for HP-9-4-30, AF1410, and AerMet 100 are given in Table 20.13 . These alloys are not corrosion resistant, and parts must be protected with a corrosion-resistant coating. Table 20.13 Typical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... … 1360-1455 … 83-89 CT (L-T) Forged bar 16 mm (0.62 in.) oil quenched from 870 °C (1600 °F) and 1 h temper 205 °C temper … 1345 … 65 CT (T-L) 395°C temper 1448 100 345 °C temper 1495 87.7 280 °C temper 1503 67 … 426°C temper … … … 60 … Vacuum melting with consumable...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... to be melted in air or argon, in contrast to the vacuum melting required for nickel- and iron-nickel-base alloys that contain the reactive metals aluminum and titanium. Unlike nickel-base alloys, which have a high tolerance for alloying elements in solid solution, cobalt-base alloys are more likely...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... the induction line, the strip is air cooled and then passed over water-cooled rolls prior to coiling at a temperature close to ambient. Probably the most basic vacuum induction process involves metal melting. Figure 11.26 illustrates a small laboratory setup utilizing a 20-kW, 10-kHz power supply capable...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... and a stainless steel company with the vacuum melting and mill processing capabilities. In the United States in the late 1940s/early 1950s, a number of companies entered the titanium business, with strong government support. A pilot unit created in 1947 at DuPont expanded production to 800,000 kg (1.8 million...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... casting is produced by vacuum induction melting (VIM). Vacuum induction melted heats of superalloys intended for the investment casting process are much smaller in mass than the VIM heats used to produce stock for wrought alloy processing. Heat sizes are more likely to be in the 4000 to 5000 lb (1815...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... and are located in certain critical locations in the rotating disc, cracks can initiate from these inclusions and propagate to dangerous dimensions. Following this accident, the manufacturers replaced the air-melted compressor discs with vacuum-melted discs, which are known to be cleaner. A plant...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... driven by the need for increasingly higher strength at higher temperatures for advanced aircraft engines. As the strength of these materials increased, hot workability decreased. The advent of vacuum melting enabled the introduction of higher retained levels of the precipitation-hardening elements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... or proprietary nature of the work. Impact grinding involves attrition of chips made from machining vacuum-melted ingots. Chips machined from vacuum-melted stock are thoroughly inspected and classified [ Wikle and Potter 1961 ]. These chips are then attrited to −200-mesh powder in a water...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
.... Beryllium normally exists in the close-packed hexagonal (hcp) crystalline form, referred to as α-beryllium, in contrast to β-beryllium, the body-centered cubic form that is stable between 1250 °C and its melting point of 1287 °C. Some characteristics of beryllium related to the beryllium atom and crystal...