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vacuum forming

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Published: 01 December 2003
Fig. 12 Thermoforming (vacuum forming) More
Image
Published: 01 October 2012
Fig. 7.17 Thermoforming (vacuum forming). Source: Ref 7.7 More
Image
Published: 30 November 2013
Fig. 9 Fatigue fracture in aluminum alloy 2024-T3 tested first in vacuum (region A) and then in air (region B) (7500×). The arrow at the lower right indicates the direction of crack propagation. Note the flat, featureless fracture surface formed while testing in vacuum (region More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... a considerable reduction in oxygen and nitrogen contents. Accordingly, with fewer oxides and nitrides formed, the microcleanliness of vacuum-melted superalloys is greatly improved compared to air EAF/AOD-melted superalloys. Additionally, high-vapor-pressure elements (specifically lead and bismuth) that may enter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... removed. 5.2.2 Flat Ply Collation and Vacuum Forming To lower the cost of ply-by-ply hand collation, in which plies are placed directly on the contour of the tool, a method called flat ply collation was developed in the early 1980s. This method, shown schematically in Fig. 5.5 , consists...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... to heat. Shrink-wrap materials for packaging and dunnage have become very important products that incorporate this phenomenon of shrinking due to controlled orientation and heating. Thermoforming Thermoforming, also referred to as vacuum forming, forms plastic sheet into shapes. The plastic sheet...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
.... Accordingly, with fewer oxides and nitrides formed, the microcleanliness of vacuum-melted superalloys is greatly improved compared to air (EAF/AOD)-melted superalloys. Additionally, high-vapor-pressure elements (specifically lead and bismuth) that may enter the scrap circuit during the manufacture...
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Published: 01 August 2005
Fig. 1.9 Superplastic forming and diffusion bonding of titanium. (a) Schematic of the steps involved. (b) Typical three-sheet titanium alloy component formed superplastically and diffusion bonded. (c) Cross section through a diffusion-bonded joint in titanium alloy, made at 980 °C (1795 °F More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
.... bonding electronics glass processing induction heating metal-finishing industries packaging plastics processing vacuum process vessel heating In a large number of applications, induction heating is utilized to raise the temperature of a metal prior to forming or joining, or to change its...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... be made by powder metallurgy (PM) techniques but are usually made by consumable electrode vacuum arc melting or by electron beam melting. Ingots are hot worked at 790 to 1205 °C (1450 to 2200 °F), followed by cold working and forming at 205 to 315 °C (400 to 600 °F). Niobium alloys can be recrystallized...
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Published: 30 April 2024
Fig. 8.2 Micrographs of white nitride layers developed in vacuum-melted AMS 6470 steel. Etched in 2% nital. Original magnification: 150×. (a) 0.0013 in. white layer formed after single-stage nitriding at 525 °C (975 °F) for 60 h with 28% dissociation. (b) 0.0008 in. white layer formed after More
Image
Published: 01 December 2003
Fig. 2 Micrographs of white nitride layers developed on vacuum-melted AMS 6470 steel. (a) White layer 0.033 mm (0.0013 in.) thick formed after single-stage nitriding at 525 °C (975 °F) for 60 h with 28% dissociation. Buildup of white layer at corner was 0.084 mm (0.0033 in.). (b) White layer More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... bath nitriding troubleshooting PROBLEMS often occur during nitriding, just as with any other heat treatment process. They can take the form of: Process problems Steel problems Machining problems Troubleshooting is a process of elimination and plain old detective work. One must...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
... consisting of 25% N 2 and 75% H 2 . In a low vacuum, high-voltage electrical energy is used to form plasma, through which nitrogen ions are accelerated to impinge on the workpiece. This ion bombardment heats the workpiece, cleans the surface, and provides active nitrogen. An ion nitriding system is shown...
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Published: 01 August 2005
Fig. 4.23 (a) Test piece used to determine the propensity for void formation as a function of joint dimensions. In this case, the components are an aluminum engineering alloy (AlMn1), joined by fluxless, vacuum brazing, using the Al-12Si braze, which is admitted to the joint gap in the form More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... Abstract This chapter discusses the following conventional molding processes for static casting: green sand molding, dry sand molding, vacuum molding, and expendable pattern casting. It also discusses core and mold processes for steel castings. The chapter provides an overview of sand molds...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... small batch furnaces to continuous furnaces for large-scale production. The process atmosphere depends on the material, ranging from air for oxide ceramics to vacuum for reactive metals. Measurement of the progress in sintering includes changes in dimensions, density, and properties. Hot isostatic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... . This photograph is after sintering, but the crack at the thick-thin junction formed during binder burnout. Scanning electron microscopy allows imaging of the powders and binder to identify small cracks in the green body. Figure 7.10 shows particle motion on the surface of a component during vacuum binder...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... of Surface in Titanium Processing Although titanium is melted under vacuum, badly oxidized surfaces can form on ingots during melting. Surface scale must be brushed off or, in extreme cases, machined off an ingot prior to remelting. Heavy oxide layers can form as a result of hot working unless hot...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... to superalloys. It describes the gas, vacuum, and centrifugal atomization processes used to make commercial superalloy powders. It explains how the powders are consolidated into preforms or billets using hot isostatic pressing, extrusion, or a combination of the two. It also provides information on spray forming...