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vacuum atomization

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... to superalloys. It describes the gas, vacuum, and centrifugal atomization processes used to make commercial superalloy powders. It explains how the powders are consolidated into preforms or billets using hot isostatic pressing, extrusion, or a combination of the two. It also provides information on spray forming...
Image
Published: 30 April 2020
Fig. 2.20 High-alloy and pure powders are fabricated by using gas atomization. The highest-purity powders rely on vacuum melting and inert gas atomization, as illustrated in this cross section. The resulting particles are spherical microcastings. More
Image
Published: 01 April 2004
Fig. 3.21 Effect of fast atom cleaning on the strength of high melting point Pb-3Sn solder joints made without breaking vacuum between cleaning and soldering. Adapted from: Kohono et al. [1996 ]. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... the design and operation of melting furnaces as well as melting practices and the role of fluxing. It also discusses casting methods, nonferrous casting alloys, and atomization processes used to make metal powders. atomization foundry casting melting furnaces nonferrous casting alloys...
Image
Published: 30 April 2020
Fig. 10.7 Influence of added graphite on sintered carbon and oxygen contents for water-atomized 15 μm 17-4 PH stainless steel sintered in a graphite vacuum furnace at 1320 °C (2410 °F) for 60 min. Source: Chang et al. ( Ref 5 ) More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... with the melt (e.g., air, nitrogen, argon, or helium) can be used for this disintegration. However, because of its relatively low price, nitrogen is the most common gas used for manufacturing of powders if low oxygen content is required. An atomizing unit can be divided into three basic parts: a vacuum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
.... To minimize the possibility of vacuum welding between them, the other component should be an element immiscible with copper. What is the best choice among the three: Fe, Ti, or Ni? Solution Ti has the largest atomic radius among the three. Its crystal structure is different from that of copper. Choose...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... materials. The term physical vapor deposition refers to any process that physically generates and deposits atoms or molecules on a substrate in a high-vacuum environment ( Ref 22.32 ). The atom flux that impinges on a substrate may be generated by evaporation, sputtering, or ion plating...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... metallurgical techniques for beryllium were first developed in 1946. Currently, powder metallurgy is the main processing route to produce beryllium components. The vacuum hot pressing method results in a fine-grained, machinable form of the material. The random orientation and fine grain size of the powder...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract The design requirements for mechanical shafts, pinions, and gears often call for features with very hard surfaces (to resist wear) based on a softer core (to avoid brittle fracture). This chapter explains how to selectively harden steel by diffusing carbon and nitrogen atoms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... heating, laser heating, and radiation). The depositing species (clusters of atoms or molecules) have relatively low energies (less than five electron volts, or eV). Relatively high deposition rates are attainable. The process is generally performed in vacuum, typically at 10 –3 to 10 –4 Pa (10 –5 to 10...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... on the events that are contributing to sintering densification, followed by a discussion on the driving forces, such as surface energy, and high-temperature atomic motion as well as the factors affecting these processes. The process of microstructure evolution in sintering is then described, followed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
...-temperature combustion and inert gas fusion methods are typically used to analyze dissolved gases (oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen) and in some cases, carbon and sulfur in metals. X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF) X-ray fluorescence is capable of the detection and quantification of elements with atomic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... coefficient of thermal expansion crystal structure enthalpy heat capacity nuclear properties physical properties thermal conductivity thermal diffusivity vapor pressure 4.1 Introduction This chapter is divided into five subsections: atomic/crystal structure, elastic properties, thermal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... cast machine Space for provision of overflows, vents, and vacuum Gate and flash trimming Guidelines for Parting Plane Selection General guidelines for parting plane selection may have conflicting requirements, and compromises have to be made including: Choosing the parting plane...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
.... In general, the BE method produces parts with lower property levels at a lower cost. Basically, the BE method is a cold press (CP) or cold isostatic press (CIP) and vacuum sinter process that results in less than fully dense material. As a result, this method customarily provides relatively lower-cost...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.9781627083898
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 January 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.itfdtktmse.9781627084406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-440-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
... and Symbols A A BGA c C CSP CTE DCA DNL E F G G H HAZ g h K K k M MEMS MCM ppm P PADS PCB PTFE Q R RH atomic weight area ball grid array crack length concentration chip-scale package coefficient of thermal (linear) expansion; see also direct chip attach dip-and-look test internal energy or Young s modulus...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... on substrates in high-vacuum environments. The atom flux that impinges on a substrate may be generated by a number of techniques, as described below. Chemical vapor deposition exposes substrates to gaseous reactants that chemically react to produce the desired surface coating products. Many of the terms used...