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vacuum arc remelting

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Abstract Casting is the most economical processing route for producing titanium parts, and unlike most metals, the properties of cast titanium are on par with those of wrought. This chapter covers titanium melting and casting practices -- including vacuum arc remelting, consumable electrode arc...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... oxygen decarburization melting, vacuum induction melting, vacuum arc remelting, and electroslag remelting. It also addresses related issues such as consumable remelt quality, control anomalies, melt pool characteristics, and melt-related defects, and includes a section that discusses the processes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
..., which may be remelted several times to achieve the necessary properties. It also discusses the cause of defects and ingot imperfections and the benefits of billet reduction and grain-refinement processes. billets ingots mill products titanium alloys titanium sponge vacuum arc remelting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... induction melting furnaces, and electroslag and vacuum arc remelting furnaces. It also covers casting, rolling, and annealing procedures and describes the basic steps in aluminum and titanium production. primary metal production rolling steel refining A GENERAL DIAGRAM for the production of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
..., manganese, and a combination of silicon and manganese. One important consequence of the use of deoxidants is the formation of solid or liquid products from the deoxidation reaction. (Vacuum carbon deoxidation is an exception but is of limited application.) During further processing of the steel, care should...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
.... They pointed out that, economically, the most attractive production process for obtaining high-purity product for fabrication is to use both VIM and vacuum arc remelting (VAR). The second VAR step reduces both impurities and grain size and removes cast inhomogeneities associated with induction-melted...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... principal remelt processes: vacuum arc remelting (VAR) and electroslag remelting (ESR). In VAR, the material to be remelted is cast into a cylindrical electrode and placed inside a cylindrical water-cooled vacuum chamber. A high-current direct current (dc) arc is established between the electrode and a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
..., macro- and microsegregation, and hot cracking, as well as the effects of solidification and remelting on castings, ingots, and continuous cast products. It explains how to determine where defects originate in continuous casters and how to control alumina, sulfide, and nitride inclusions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... Rotating disk; forced helium convective cooling (a) VIM, vacuum induction melting. (b) VAR, vacuum arc remelting; ESR, electroslag remelting. (c) RSR, rapid solidification rate The principal commercial powder-making processes are gas atomization and vacuum atomization. The most...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
..., “Primary Mill Fabrication,” in this book include vacuum induction melting (VIM), vacuum arc remelting (VAR), and argon oxygen deoxidation (AOD) for stainless steels. Sand casting is the oldest known casting process. The molten metal is poured into a cavity shaped inside a body of sand and allowed to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... Abstract Metal-matrix composites can operate at higher temperatures than their base metal counterparts and, unlike polymer-matrix composites, are nonflammable, do not outgas in a vacuum, and resist attack by solvents and fuels. They can also be tailored to provide greater strength and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
..., depending on the method, inert gas, vacuum, and/or metal contact provide the required protection. Conversely, processes such as oxyacetylene torch and shielded metal arc with coated electrodes are unacceptable because active elements and compounds are present. A proprietary flux, which does not...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
..., such as electroslag remelting (ESR) and vacuum arc remelting (VAR). These operations can be performed after primary melting and solidification are completed to further refine the microstructure of the material. The process of solidification can be achieved using a wide variety of casting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... (2.5 × 3.5 in.) billets produced from 200 mm (8 in.) diam vacuum induction melted/vacuum arc remelted ingots. Grade Ultimate tensile strength 0.2% offset yield strength Elongation in 25 mm (1 in.), % Reduction in area, % Charpy V-notch impact toughness (a) Plane-strain fracture toughness (a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... , Superalloys, Supercomposites, and Superceramics , Academic Press , 1989 , p 49 – 97 10.1016/B978-0-12-690845-9.50009-9 • Pridgeon J.W. , Darmara F.N. , Huntington J.S. , and Sutton W.H. , Principles and Practices of Vacuum Induction Melting and Vacuum Arc Remelting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... adaptation of HIP to the most critical castings. Significant design complexity, tolerance, and surface-finish control have been achieved, and large parts approaching 1.5 m (5 ft) in diameter can be cast. Castings generally are produced by vacuum arc remelting titanium in a copper, water-cooled crucible...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... melted in relatively small-tonnage electric arc furnaces to economically achieve composition tolerances, cleanliness, and precise control of melting conditions. Special ladle refining and secondary remelting processes, such as electroslag remelting and vacuum arc remelting, are used to meet stringent...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... byproducts of the Kroll magnesium reduction process for titanium. The sponge is crushed before consolidation and, although most of the sponge is of acceptable size for further conventional processing, sponge fines exist that are not conveniently incorporated into the vacuum arc remelted (VAR) sponge...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... cobalt that helps to prevent retained austenite. To obtain the desired fracture toughness, all of these steels are vacuum melted. The mechanical properties for HP-9-4-30, AF1410, and AerMet 100 are given in Table 20.13 . These alloys are not corrosion resistant, and parts must be protected with a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
..., improved vacuum arc remelting (VAR) techniques and ultra-tight composition control have expanded the size capability of IN-718 to 30 in. ingot, resulting in the ability to process IN-718 to the large disk sizes needed in modern industrial gas turbines. Advanced wrought alloys for land-based gas turbine...