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unit cell

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract This appendix explains how to identify crystallographic planes and directions. It shows how Miller indices, a system for specifying crystallographic planes within a unit cell, are determined for cubic and hexagonal systems. It also explains how x-ray diffraction techniques...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
...Abstract Abstract This appendix provides a detailed overview of the crystal structure of metals. It describes primary bonding mechanisms, space lattices and crystal systems, unit cell parameters, slip systems, and crystallographic planes and directions as well as plastic deformation mechanisms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... of atoms belonging to a unit cell, note that atoms at the corner points belong to the six neighboring lattices, and they contribute ⅙ of an atom to the unit cell. Atoms at the face centers belong to two adjacent lattices and contribute ½ of an atom to the unit cell. Finally, the three atoms in the interior...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... are arranged in repeating three-dimensional patterns or lattices. The smallest characteristic piece of the repeating pattern is called the unit cell. In metal, crystal atoms are in contact with each other. Most crystal structures are either the densest way of packing spheres or almost the densest. Most...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.9781627082518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... is characterized by the unit cell shown in Fig. 3.2 . Ferrite belongs to the cubic crystal system—all three axes of the unit cell are of the same length a and are mutually perpendicular. The space lattice of ferrite is body-centered cubic (bcc). There are a total of two atoms per unit cell: the body-centered...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... differently than it does for the fcc lattice. A closest-packed bcc plane is defined by a unit cell edge and face diagonal. There are only two close-packed directions (the cube diagonals) in the closest-packed bcc plane, but there are six nonparallel planes of this type. Over certain temperature ranges, some...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
... cell. Solutions Consider the body-centered cubic unit cell below, showing both lattice sites and octahedral interstitials at (0, 0, ½) and equivalent sites. Note that the interstitial site has a slight tetragonal distortion and is therefore not exactly octahedral. The lattice constant...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.9781627083898
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
..., tetragonal, or cubic. The unit cell of a crystal is the smallest pattern of arrangement that can be contained in a parallelepiped with the possibility of three distinct edge lengths along the three axes of the crystal cell. The edge lengths (or so-called lattice parameters) are defined by the symbols a , b...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
..., state; the crystalline appearance reflects the type of fracture, not the cause of fracture. Figure 1 illustrates the simplest, basic unit cell of a body-centered cubic structure, such as that of iron or steel. The cell is composed of eight atoms at the corners, plus another at the center...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
...-packed (hcp) crystal structure Fig. 5 Body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure Fig. 1 Space lattice and the unit cell Fig. 29 Effect of silicon on the eutectic temperatures of austenite-graphite and austenite-cementite. Source: Ref 6 ; adapted from Ref 7 Fig. 6...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... remain at the top and bottom faces and at the unit cell corners, while copper atoms are located at the side face sites, causing a slight change in the lattice parameter ( Fig. 9.6b ). It can be seen that the resultant superlattice is comprised of a layer of copper atoms located between two layers of gold...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... ), which is like a distorted bcc structure. The amount of distortion depends on the amount of carbon in the steel. Figure 7.5 shows how the ratio of the edges of the unit cell depends on the carbon content. With no carbon the unit cell is bcc. Fig. 7.4 The martensite unit cell. Ref 7.4...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
..., in northwestern Germany. The name “Duralumin” for the new alloy presumably resulted from contracting the words “Durener” and “aluminum.” For the next 13 years and without the benefit of theory, metallurgists put the new alloy to use. The mystery was solved in 1919 in the United States by a team...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... with increasing temperature. At temperatures just below the 727 °C (1340 °F) eutectoid temperature ( Fig. 3 ), the thermodynamic driving force (i.e., the decrease in free energy per unit volume when austenite is replaced by pearlite) is low in order to offset the increase in energy in the eutectoid reactions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... themselves, and some or all of them get trapped in the ferrite, causing its composition to rise well above 0.02%, which makes its crystal structure become distorted from the bcc form. The resulting distorted crystal structure is martensite. Figure 4.11 compares the unit cell of bcc ferrite...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
...) structure, thus producing a new phase, martensite. The solubility of carbon in a bcc structure is greatly exceeded when martensite forms; hence, martensite assumes a body-centered tetragonal (bct) unit cell (see Fig. 5.1 ) in which the c parameter of the unit cell is greater than the other two...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... and negative charge do not coincide. One example is quartz. Another is barium titanate. Above 120 °C (250 °F), BaTiO 3 is cubic with the Ti 4+ ion in the center of a cubic unit cell with O 2− ions in face-centering positions and Ba 2+ ions at the corners. However, at lower temperatures, the cell becomes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.9781627083263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3