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underground environments

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
...Abstract Abstract Corrosive environments can be broadly classified as atmospheric, underground/soil, water, acidic, alkaline, and combinations of these. Complicating matters is the fact that there are important variables, for example, pH, temperature, and the presence of biological organisms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... to be considered corrosion resistant and undergo a variety of corrosion failure modes/mechanisms in underground environments, including general corrosion, pitting corrosion, and stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). The terms general corrosion and pitting corrosion are used rather loosely when describing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... Underground Structures The applications of cathodic protection are quite diverse with respect to the corrosive environment in which it is applied, the industries in which it is applied, and the types of equipment and structures that are cathodically protected. Early applications included the protection...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
...Abstract Abstract Corrosion can be defined as a chemical or electrochemical reaction between a material, usually a metal, and its environment that produces a deterioration of the material and its properties. This chapter describes the effects and economic impact of corrosion in major industrial...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...-resistivity conditions. Fig. 6 Underground storage tanks with prepackaged sacrificial anodes In sacrificial-anode systems, the maximum voltage between anode and cathode is approximately 1 V, depending on the anode material and the specific environment. Impressed-current systems can use larger...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
.... Electrochemical Corrosion Basics Electrochemical corrosion in metals in a natural environment, whether atmosphere, in water, or underground, is caused by a flow of electricity from one metal to another, or from one part of a metal surface to another part of the same surface where conditions permit the flow...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., and well casings. All too often, however, galvanic corrosion caused by contact between dissimilar metals in the same environment is harmful. Examples are: Unprotected underground plain carbon steel pipelines connected to above-ground tanks and other structures that are electrically grounded...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... for Rubber O-Rings • D 1654, Method for Evaluation of Painted or Coated Specimens Subjected to Corrosive Environments • D 1743, Test Method for Corrosion Preventive Properties of Lubricating Greases • D 1838, Test Method for Copper Strip Corrosion by Liquefied Petroleum (LP) Gases • D 2059...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
...Abstract Abstract All materials are susceptible to corrosion or some form of environmental degradation. Although no single material is suitable for all applications, usually there are a variety of materials that will perform satisfactorily in a given environment. The intent of this chapter...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... difference between the metals or alloys The nature of the environment The polarization behavior of the metals or alloys The geometric relationship of the component metals or alloys The difference in potential between dissimilar metals or alloys causes electron flow between them when...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... of a metal because of electrical contact with a more noble metal or nonmetallic conductor such as graphite in a conductive environment is called galvanic corrosion. The most common examples of galvanic corrosion of aluminum alloys in service occur when they are joined to steel or copper and exposed to a wet...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
..., %, during exposure of indicated length in environment type Seacoast (a) Industrial (b) Rural (c) 6 mo l yr 2 yr 5 yr 6 mo 1 yr 2 yr 5 yr 6 mo l yr 2 yr 5 yr 2024-T351 33 46 52 70 6 9 13 20 1 2 5 11 2024-T851 20 25 26 28 2 5 6 11 0 0 0 6 5456-H116 4...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... simulated atmosphere tests salt-spray tests immersion tests CORROSION TESTING AND MONITORING are powerful tools in the flight to control corrosion. Testing provides the necessary data for the evaluation and/or selection of existing, alternative, or new materials in various environments. Monitoring...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... this occurs in the atmosphere, acid rain is formed, which is a severe environment for metal structures. The movement of the electrons from anodic to cathodic sites in a metal is a result of the difference in Gibbs free energy between the anode (higher level) and the cathode (lower level). This results...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... environments. It explains how composition and microstructure influence SCC, as do mechanical properties such as strength and fracture toughness and processes such as welding and cold work. It also discusses the role of materials selection and best practices for welding. carbon steel low-alloy steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... are a compromise based on cost and availability of materials and resources. Designing for corrosion control can only be effective if it is part of the overall design philosophy. There are numerous textbooks, handbooks, and articles on corrosion; several offer choices for specific materials/environment systems...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... environments soured by sulfate-reducing-bacteria (SRB)-produced sulfides Underground pipeline Water-saturated clay-type soils of near-neutral pH with decaying organic matter and a source of SRB Water treatment Heat exchangers and piping Sewage handling and treatment Concrete and reinforced-concrete...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... important properties. Coatings and linings may protect substrates by three basic mechanisms: Barrier protection Chemical inhibition Galvanic (sacrificial) protection Barrier protection is achieved when coatings completely isolate the substrate from the environment. Chemical inhibition...