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underground environment

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... industries Mothballed and waterflood systems; oil and gas handling systems, particularly in those environments soured by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), from produced sulfides Underground pipeline industry Water-saturated clay-type soils of near-neutral pH with decaying organic matter and a source...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... . Given the implications of pipeline failures and the role that external corrosion plays in these failures, it is apparent that proper corrosion control can have a major impact on the safety, environmental preservation, and the economics of pipeline operation. The vast majority of underground...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... Underground Structures The applications of cathodic protection are quite diverse with respect to the corrosive environment in which it is applied, the industries in which it is applied, and the types of equipment and structures that are cathodically protected. Early applications included the protection...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
...Abstract Abstract Corrosion can be defined as a chemical or electrochemical reaction between a material, usually a metal, and its environment that produces a deterioration of the material and its properties. This chapter describes the effects and economic impact of corrosion in major industrial...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... is the anode. Anodic protection can be used on a limited number of alloys in certain restricted environments, but cathodic protection can, in principle, be applied to any metal. In practice, cathodic protection is primarily used to protect carbon steel structures. Cathodic protection allows carbon steel, which...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... & Sons , 1985 Electrochemical corrosion in metals in a natural environment, whether atmosphere, in water, or underground, is caused by a flow of electricity from one metal to another, or from one part of a metal surface to another part of the same surface where conditions permit the flow...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... the original to include the precious metals) Partial listing of environments known to cause intergranular corrosion in sensitized austenitic stainless steels Table 2 Partial listing of environments known to cause intergranular corrosion in sensitized austenitic stainless steels Environment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... for Rubber O-Rings • D 1654, Method for Evaluation of Painted or Coated Specimens Subjected to Corrosive Environments • D 1743, Test Method for Corrosion Preventive Properties of Lubricating Greases • D 1838, Test Method for Copper Strip Corrosion by Liquefied Petroleum (LP) Gases • D 2059...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.9781627083027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... of zinc or nickel, resulting in a layer of sponge copper Select proper alloy for environmental conditions based on metallographic examination of corrosion specimens. Corrosion fatigue Several transgranular cracks Select proper alloy based on fatigue tests in service environment. Reduce mean...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... difference between the metals or alloys The nature of the environment The polarization behavior of the metals or alloys The geometric relationship of the component metals or alloys The difference in potential between dissimilar metals or alloys causes electron flow between them when...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... of a metal because of electrical contact with a more noble metal or nonmetallic conductor such as graphite in a conductive environment is called galvanic corrosion. The most common examples of galvanic corrosion of aluminum alloys in service occur when they are joined to steel or copper and exposed to a wet...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... on the surface of virtually all structural metals and alloys immersed in aqueous environments have the capability to influence the corrosion of those metals and alloys. This influence derives from the ability of the organisms to change environmental variables including oxidizing power, temperature, velocity...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... simulated atmosphere tests salt-spray tests immersion tests CORROSION TESTING AND MONITORING are powerful tools in the flight to control corrosion. Testing provides the necessary data for the evaluation and/or selection of existing, alternative, or new materials in various environments. Monitoring...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... corrosion rate by several orders of magnitude. The principal source of chlorides is aerosols, which are suspensions of small liquid or solid particles in the atmosphere that come from salt spray and salt fog in the vicinity of the seashore and from the contaminated environment around industrial plants...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
..., for SCC to occur: (a) a tensile stress of sufficient magnitude, (b) a potent cracking environment, and (c) a susceptible material. The effects of applied stress on SCC are briefly reviewed in the section “Test Methods” in this chapter. Environmental effects are discussed in some detail in the section...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... factors (e.g., cold work, plastic deformation, sensitization) Environmental sources Conductivity and resistivity of fluid; changes in temperature; velocity and direction of fluid flow; aeration; ambient environment (seasonal changes, etc.) Miscellaneous sources Stray currents; conductive paths...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., and outage periods Onshore and offshore oil and gas Mothballed and waterflood systems; oil- and gas-handling systems, particularly in those environments soured by sulfate-reducing-bacteria (SRB)-produced sulfides Underground pipeline Water-saturated clay-type soils of near-neutral pH with decaying...