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ultrasound method

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htpa.t53310091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-346-1
... the use of ultrasound to determine the depth of hardening in a metal or alloy. The chapter reviews methods used to check and calibrate hardness testing machines and indenters and the use of hardness reference blocks for verification and calibration of test machines. It also addresses conversion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... of an internal flaw. There are four methods, the simplest of which involves comparing the amplitude of the echo signal from the flaw with the echo signal from a side-drilled or flat-bottomed hole. This can only be applied if the dimension is smaller than the width of the ultrasound beam (typically, 5 to 10 mm...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
..., and nondestructive testing. This chapter is a detailed account of these testing methods. It describes the four most common types of defects in P/M parts, namely ejection cracks, density variations, microlaminations, and poor sintering. The chapter discusses the capabilities and limitations of various nondestructive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
.... The attenuation of the ultrasound differs between homogeneous regions and regions with flaws. The resulting image has characteristic light and dark features. Variations of this technique include reflection type imaging by scanning a transducer in a raster pattern over the sample surface. The method has been...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... to be filled. Cellulose gum is especially useful on rough surfaces when good coupling is needed to minimize background noise and yield an adequate signal-to-noise ratio. Basic Inspection Methods Ultrasound can be used to measure material thickness by (a) determining resonant frequencies of a test...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... is transmitted and received by the same transducer. Thus, it is an excellent method when there is access to only one side of the part. The amplitude of the echo received from the back surface is reduced by the presence of defects in the structure. Attenuation of the ultrasound is affected by internal defects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
.... The NDI techniques, including through-transmission ultrasound (C-scan) and x-ray radiography methods, are excellent methods for determining the void area in composite materials but are limited to the through-thickness direction and lack morphological detail of the voids throughout the thickness ( Ref 16...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... the composite part. This chapter describes the macroeffects of a lightning strike on composites and discusses the methods involved in the assessment of microstructural damage in composites. lightning damage microstructure non-destructive inspection polymer composites visual damage assessment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... ). There are a few nondestructive analytical methods used to examine composites after impact. Two methods used in the aircraft industry to analyze damage areas are ultrasound C-scan and x-radiography techniques. These analytical techniques can show the extent of damage in the composite but not the effect...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract This chapter describes how ultrasonic testing came to be a viable method for evaluating intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in large-diameter stainless steel pipe welds in boiling water reactor service. Intergranular SCC can be difficult to detect using nondestructive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
..., non-destructive testing is desired and leads to a significant variation of the overall FA process flow. Methods like X-Ray microscopy, thermal & ultrasound imaging or time-domain reflectometry are fitting alternatives that are further developed and adapted to close the gap between past, present...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... the focus away from set periods of inspection (prescriptive regime) to the setting of inspection periods that reflected the true condition and nature of the equipment and its specific service conditions (risk-based regime). Allied to this, developments in equipment, methods, and procedures for noninvasive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
... of solders. Further, the chapter considers methods for quantifying the mechanical integrity of joints and predicting their dimensional stability under specified environmental conditions. It discusses the effects of rare earth elements on the properties of solders. The chapter concludes with information...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htpa.t53310025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-346-1
... Method ” and “Determining Hardening Depth by Ultrasound” in Chapter 4 in this book) are applied to an ever increasing extent. Testing Machines for the Vickers Procedure Machines for hardness measurement according to Vickers are produced by various companies. The force is applied by hydraulic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... for MEMS is [6] , and a classic reference is [7] .) A few wafer bonding methods are most common for MEMS: glass frit, metal-metal thermocompression bonding [8] , and fusion bonding. Glass paste can be screen printed onto the wafer or applied as a stencil. The wafers are aligned and compressed at 350...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... and the indirect compressive stress generated in the die. Friction is equivalent to a back tension and thus lowers the interface pressure, but at the expense of higher draw forces. 9.1.2 Stresses and Forces The force required for drawing can be calculated by a variety of methods, with the traditional upper...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
..., Erichsen test, and Olsen ductility test. curling The act of forming an edge of circular cross section along a sheet or work piece or at the end of a shell or tube. cushion pin See pressure pin. cut-and-carry method A method in which the part under fabrication is not entirely detached from the strip...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.9781627083164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... the historical development of SAM for integrated circuit package inspection, SAM theory, and analysis considerations. Case studies are presented to illustrate the practical applications of SAM. Other non-destructive imaging tools are briefly discussed, as well as SAM challenges and methods including spectral...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... to compare the actual image with the original design to meet demanding dimensional tolerances. Test Methods In the previous chapter, in the section “Mechanical and Physical Tests,” general mechanical and physical test methods are mentioned. In harder alloy extrusions, quality assurance standards may...