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two-angle diffraction

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.9781627082921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... integer wavelength ( n = 1, 2, 3, …), then the reflected beam will consist of rays that are in phase again. The angle at which reflection occurs is known as the Bragg angle, θ. Two parallel planes of atoms identified as A-A′ and B-B′ , which have the same h , k , and l Miller indices separated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.9781627082518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
..., 1.4 Cu, and 1.0 Ni). Dislocations aligned in a low-angle grain boundary can also be seen. 61,500×. Courtesy of K.A. Taylor, Bethlehem Steel Corporation Fig. 6.11 A transmission electron micrograph of a two-stage, shadowed surface replica of AISA/SAE 1080 pearlitic steel showing a boundary...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
.... A.55 Phase boundary in copper-zinc system. Source: Ref A.8 as published in Ref A.1 Fig. A.56 Phase boundaries. Source: Ref A.9 as published in Ref A.1 Fig. A.57 Dihedral angle, θ, between two interfaces of differing phases. Source: Ref A.6 as published in Ref A.1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
.... A periodic two-dimensional pattern resembling the atomic structure can be formed when three or more, non-collinear strong diffracted beams along with transmitted beam are symmetrically included with the objective aperture ( Figure 15 ). The pattern or the fringe spacing corresponds to the interplanar spacing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
.... A close look at the XRD profiles for these two minerals ( Fig. 5.22 ) shows that the position and intensity of diffraction peaks for these two materials are different even though they have the same chemical formula ( Ref 5.19 ). This is because they have different crystal structures, and therefore...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... . The crystallinity is lost at 120 °C (250 °F), because the sample temperature is above the T m . Fig. 35 X-ray diffraction curve of unoriented polyethylene. (a) At 100 °C (212 °F). (b) At 120 °C (250 °F) Some polymers have XRD patterns with multiple diffuse bands that are interpreted as two...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... with broad peaks, as shown in Fig. 5.4(a) for an IN625 coating ( Ref 5.25 ). The peak broadening in the as-sprayed coating as compared to the powders can be due to two factors: particle size broadening and broadening due to strain (nonuniform). The full width at half maxima (FWHM) of the diffraction peak...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... perception comes from having each eye view from a slightly different angle causing image shift or parallax to each eye. The stereomicroscope creates parallax by actually offering two microscopes in a common housing, one for each eye, each seeing the sample from a different angle. For compactness the left...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... at two of the ten large furnace-sensitized recirculation-system safe ends. Further examination revealed three pinholes and one 12.5 mm (½ in.) long axial indication, all of which were located in the HAZs of the welds. The leaking areas had been ultrasonically examined nine months prior to the hydrostatic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... and the composition Fe 5 C 2 . However, despite the differences between cementite and chi carbide, the relatively complex structures of the two carbide phases are similar and difficult to separate by X-ray or electron diffraction techniques. Therefore, in view of the experimental difficulty in separating the presence...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
..., American Society for Testing and Materials , 1967 , p 131 – 168 10.30 Tuba I.S. , A Method of Elastic-Plastic Plane Stress and Strain Analysis , J. Strain Anal. , Vol 1 , 1966 , p 115 – 122 10.1243/03093247V012115 10.31 Forsyth P.J.E. , A Two-Stage Process of Fatigue-Crack...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... specifies planes and directions of the parent phase and the planes and directions in the product martensite to which they are parallel. Two well-known orientation relationships have been determined in ferrous alloy systems by means of X-ray diffraction techniques ( Ref 5.36 ). The Kurdjumov-Sachs...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
...-ray diffraction can also be used for the establishment of the loci of phase boundaries. For instance, in a two-component system, lattice parameters can vary with composition within a single-phase region but are invariant in a two-phase region. Additionally, with measurement of precision lattice...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
...: Ref 1 Only when an ultrasonic wave is incident at right angles on an interface between two materials (normal incidence, or angle of incidence = 0°) do transmission and reflection occur at the interface without any change in beam direction. At any other angle of incidence, the phenomena of mode...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1983
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mlt.t62860295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-348-5
...-induced γ → α’ martensitic transformation in two carbon stainless steels. Application to trip steels. Metall. Trans . 4 , 2205 – 2216 . 10.1007/BF02643289 Andrews K. W. ( 1965 ). Empirical formulae for the calculation of some transformation temperatures . J. Iron Steel Inst . 203...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... ingots. These instruments have variable beam diameters down to ~0.1 mm (~0.004 in.), and x-y stages to translate the sample under the beam. The two main limitations are: Elements with low atomic numbers produce very few x-rays and are difficult to detect or quantify, particularly in energy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... to collect the relevant background information. This facilitates the developing of a complete case history about the failure. The information to be collected falls into two groups: Information about the failed component Information about the failure itself Information about the failed...