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two-angle diffraction

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.9781627082921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... is out of phase with the preceding one by exactly one wavelength, or any whole integer wavelength ( n = 1, 2, 3, …), then the reflected beam will consist of rays that are in phase again. The angle at which reflection occurs is known as the Bragg angle, θ. Two parallel planes of atoms identified...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.t56000001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
... be determined experimentally by using a secondary electron detector to record a well-focused image of the transmission detector surface and another of the sample, and then subtracting the two working distances (WD) indicated by the SEM: CL = WDsample WDdetector. Acceptance angles, , can be calculated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.t56000020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
...-contrast. MBF images, (d) and (e), with slightly different inner acceptance angles. Chapter Two Imaging and Diffraction with a Programmable Pixelated Detector 25 Figures 3(d) and (e) show additional detector utility. Here, two nearly iden- tical apertures were programmed to the DMD to demonstrate MBF...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.9781627082518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... with the preceding one by exactly one wavelength, or any whole integer wavelength ( n = 1, 2, 3,…), then the reflected beam will consist of rays that are in phase again. The angle at which reflection occurs is known as the Bragg angle, θ. Two parallel planes of atoms identified as A-A ′ and B-B ′, which have...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... C, 0.5 Mn, 1.4 Cu, and 1.0 Ni). Dislocations aligned in a low-angle grain boundary can also be seen. 61,500×. Courtesy of K.A. Taylor, Bethlehem Steel Corporation Fig. 6.11 A transmission electron micrograph of a two-stage, shadowed surface replica of AISA/SAE 1080 pearlitic steel showing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... with the aberration corrected instruments. Phase contrast images are formed because of interference between the transmitted and diffracted beams symmetrically included by the objective aperture. A periodic two-dimensional pattern resembling the atomic structure can be formed when three or more, non-collinear...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
.... A close look at the XRD profiles for these two minerals ( Fig. 5.22 ) shows that the position and intensity of diffraction peaks for these two materials are different even though they have the same chemical formula ( Ref 5.19 ). This is because they have different crystal structures, and therefore...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
.... It is used for detecting the effect of the object on plane-polarized light produced by the polarizer. angle of re ection. (1) Re ection: the angle between the re ected surface. See also normal. (2) Diffraction: the angle between the diffracted beam and the diffracting planes. angstrom unit. A unit of linear...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
...) of the diffraction peak is estimated from the Scherrer formula ( Ref 5.26 ) for particle size broadening: (Eq 5.1) d = 0.9 λ/β cos θ where d is the particle size, λ is the wavelength of the x-ray, β is the FWHM of the x-ray peak (in radians), and θ is the angle of the peak. Typically, the Scherrer...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... diffraction analysis (XRD) Crystalline polymer component Crystalline structure, short- and long-range ordering, percent crystallinity, polymer blend/copolymer Small-angle x-ray diffraction X-ray scattering at low angle Crystallite size and shape, long-range periodicity Scanning electron microscopy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... evaluation (NDE) techniques because of its treelike branching pattern and its location in the heat-affected zone within the weld. As the chapter explains, by optimizing excitation and reflected waveforms, switching to dual-element sensing, properly orienting the scanning path, and using crack-tip diffraction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
.... The stereomicroscope creates parallax by actually offering two microscopes in a common housing, one for each eye, each seeing the sample from a different angle. For compactness the left and right eye microscope often share portions of the final lens as shown in the right design in figure 5 . Figure 5 Two...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... of phase diagrams. A simple XRD pattern can be used for phase identification. X-ray diffraction can also be used for the establishment of the loci of phase boundaries. For instance, in a two-component system, lattice parameters can vary with composition within a single-phase region but are invariant...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... and the composition Fe 5 C 2 . However, despite the differences between cementite and chi carbide, the relatively complex structures of the two carbide phases are similar and difficult to separate by X-ray or electron diffraction techniques. Therefore, in view of the experimental difficulty in separating the presence...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.edfatr.t56090083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-462-8
... even beyond the critical angle. SIL solutions are introduced in four main parts in this chapter: types, materials, quality and aberration, and commercial solutions. SIL Types Typically, there are two basic types of refractive SIL ( Table 1 ): Hemispherical SIL (hSIL), central SIL (cSIL...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
...) on the oscilloscope must be carefully calibrated, because in angle-beam testing there is no back reflection echo to provide a reference to estimate flaw depth. Usually, an extended time base is used so flaws are located with one or two skip distances from the search unit. The definition of skip distance is shown...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... deformation creates dislocations (see Appendix) within each grain, i.e., within each individual crystal. These dislocations become intertwined. In an attempt to seek a minimum energy level during repeated plastic deformation, the dislocations often tend to arrange themselves into what are known as low-angle...