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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.9781627082532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... efficiency, as well as greater demand on construction materials. This chapter discusses the primary requirements for boiler tube materials, including oxidation and corrosion resistance, fatigue strength, thermal conductivity, and the ability to resist creep and rupture. It also provides information...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract This chapter describes some of the most effective tools for investigating boiler tube failures, including scanning electron microscopy, optical emission spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract The power generating industry has become proficient at predicting how long a component will last under a given set of operating conditions. This chapter explains how such predictions are made in the case of boiler tubes. It identifies critical damage mechanisms, progressive failure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... Abstract Tube hydroforming is a material-forming process that uses pressurized fluid to plastically deform tubular materials into desired shapes. It is widely used in the automotive industry for making exhaust manifolds, catalytic converters, shock absorber housings, and other parts...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... Abstract This chapter opens with a discussion of the classification of rod and tube extrusion processes. The standard processes involve hot working (extrusion at temperatures above room temperature), but some specialized cold working processes are also used for rod and tube extrusion. The next...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
..., including brake forming, stretch forming, deep drawing, and spin forming as well as roll forming, drop-hammer forming, tube bulging and bending, and superplastic forming. It also discusses dimpling and joggling and the use of hot sizing to correct springback. forming lubricants titanium alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... of diffusion, nucleation, and growth. It also discusses alloying, heat treating, and defect formation and briefly covers condenser tube materials. alloying elements austenitic stainless steels boiler tubes condenser tubes continuous cooling transformation diagram creep-resistant steels ferritic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract Water chemistry is a factor in nearly all boiler tube failures. It contributes to the formation of scale, biofilms, and sludge, determines deposition rates, and drives the corrosion process. This chapter explains how water chemistry is managed in boilers and describes the effect...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... Abstract The machinery and equipment required for rod and tube extrusion is determined by the specific extrusion process. This chapter provides a detailed description of the design requirements and principles of machinery and equipment for direct and indirect hot extrusion. It then covers...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract This chapter discusses radiography methods using x-rays, gamma rays, and neutrons. It begins with a discussion on the applications and principles of radiography followed by sections providing information on the sources of radiation, classifications, and characteristics of x-ray tubes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... susceptible to corrosion. This chapter describes some of the problems that the pulp and paper industry has solved as well as ongoing issues and concerns. It includes an in-depth review of 304L cladding failures involving coextruded composite tubes used as floor tunes in the lower furnace, as superheater tubes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270110
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... Abstract Helicopter control mechanisms were failing at a higher than normal rate on high-altitude flights in mountainous regions. All of the failures occurred at or near attachment points on pressurized tubes, causing a pressure drop and partial loss of function. Visual and SEM examinations...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract Boiler tubes subjected to cyclic or fluctuating loads over extended periods of time are prone to fatigue failure. Fatigue can occur at relatively low stresses and is implicated in almost 80% of the tube failures in firetube boilers. This chapter covers the most common forms of boiler...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... Abstract The hot-working process extrusion is used to produce semifinished products in the form of bar, strip, and solid sections, as well as tubes and hollow sections. The first part of this chapter describes the composition, properties, and applications of tin and lead extruded products...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract Many metallic components, such as retorts in heat treat furnaces, furnace heater tubes and coils in chemical and petrochemical plants, waterwalls and reheater tubes in boilers, and combustors and transition ducts in gas turbines, are subject to oxidation. This chapter explains how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract Boiler tubes operating at high temperatures under significant pressure are vulnerable to stress rupture failures. This chapter examines the cause, effect, and appearance of such failures. It discusses the conditions and mechanisms that either lead to or are associated with stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... in construction. It then describes the various causes of failure in boiler tubes, headers, and steam pipes, explaining how and why they occur, how they are diagnosed, and how to mitigate their effects. The final and by far largest section in the chapter is a tutorial on damage and life assessment techniques...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... or internally fired boiler based on whether the fire is inside or outside the shell. In other words, a boiler is classified as a firetube or watertube boiler based on the relative location of the water and fuel inside or outside the tube. Single tube or multitube boiler based on the number of tubes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... about 15 m (50 ft.) on a side and 40 m (130 ft.) tall. Its walls are lined with a network or web of HP steel tubes known as waterwalls or waterwall tubes, filled with water and about 55 to 65 mm (2 to 2.5 in.) in diameter. The pulverized coal-hot air mixture is air-blown into the furnace through burners...