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tube forming

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... on joggling block; R 2 , radius of bend on leading edge of joggle block Fig. 11.14 Typical rubber bulging setup for the tube-bulging process with die-formed and free-formed configurations Fig. 11.13 Fabrication of Ti-6Al-4V sheet structure using a combination of superplastic forming...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
...Abstract Abstract Tube hydroforming is a material-forming process that uses pressurized fluid to plastically deform tubular materials into desired shapes. It is widely used in the automotive industry for making exhaust manifolds, catalytic converters, shock absorber housings, and other parts...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
...Abstract Abstract Boiler tubes subjected to cyclic or fluctuating loads over extended periods of time are prone to fatigue failure. Fatigue can occur at relatively low stresses and is implicated in almost 80% of the tube failures in firetube boilers. This chapter covers the most common forms...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...) chemical treatments to control pH, electrochemical potential, and dissolved oxygen concentration ( Ref 1 ). In the waterwall tubes, as steam forms, dissolved solids concentrate in the boiler water; once the solubility limit of an impurity is exceeded, deposits can precipitate out ( Ref 1 ). Typical boiler...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
..., window regulators and guides, ceiling grids and tiles, tailgates and garage doors, roof and siding panels Warehouse equipment parts Furniture parts Tubes and pipes Constructional steelwork 10.1 Roll Forming Lines 10.2 Roll Design 10.3 Recent Developments and the Future of Roll...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... such circumstances, volatile compounds of sulfur, namely sodium and potassium pyrosulfates (Na 2 S 2 O 7 and K 2 S 2 O 7 ), with a low melting point (450 °C, or 840 °F), form. These compounds volatilize at high temperature and condense as a liquid on the relatively cooler surface of the waterwall tubes ( Ref 6.31...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... to form a fireball in the combustion chamber. The combustion takes place at 1300 to 1700 °C (2370 to 3090 °F) and the heat generated is transferred to the feedwater that flows through the waterwall tubes that form the walls of the furnace. The feedwater consists of condensate or condensed steam returned...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... the weights of various grades of titanium in their original product form. It provides data on commercially pure and alloyed titanium in forms such as flat and rectangular bar, rounds and squares, billet, plate, sheet, pipe, and tube. It also includes conversion tables. Note that the data contained...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... is evaporated to steam and are often known as steam generating tubes. These tubes form the walls of the boiler and are therefore named waterwalls or waterwall panels. Superheater and reheater tubes operate at relatively higher temperature in the creep range and they ensure heat transfer between the hot flue...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
...Abstract Abstract The hot-working process extrusion is used to produce semifinished products in the form of bar, strip, and solid sections, as well as tubes and hollow sections. The first part of this chapter describes the composition, properties, and applications of tin and lead extruded...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... of the circumferential cracking) observed on a T-22 (2.25Cr-1Mo) wingwall tube of a supercritical boiler, showing ″channels″ (light color stringers) in the core of the penetration. Courtesy of Welding Services Inc. Fig. 14.18 Optical micrograph showing numerous ″channels″ in a circumferential groove formed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... F F F F Metallurgical variations F F F F F F Sheet and plate Thickness G (e) G (e) G (e) G (e) U G (e) Laminations U U U U U U Voids G G G G G G Bar and tube Seams P P P P P P Pipe G G G G F F Cupping G G G G F F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the effects of corrosion on boiler tube surfaces exposed to water and steam. It describes the process of corrosion, the formation of scale, and the oxides of iron from which it forms. It addresses the primary types of corrosion found in boiler...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... and structural defects, forming and welding defects, design defects, improper cleaning methods, and ineffective maintenance. It also includes case studies and illustrations. boiler tubes chemical cleaning design defects forming defects material defects quality control welding defects Failures...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Extruded Shapes Extruded Pipe and Hollows Wire Products Tube Products Wire Processing Tubing Processing Seamless Pipe and Tubing Titanium and titanium alloys are produced in nearly every form of mill product. Differences in the behavior of titanium and that of the specialty steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.9781627082532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
Book Chapter

By Eren Billur
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... because slugs/parts from previous strokes may have been left in the die area). If the system detects no foreign objects, then it activates the high-pressure accumulator to initiate the main (blanking) slide movement. Hydroforming Presses Hydroforming is a sheet metal or tube forming process where...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... in tube failure by these mechanisms. For example, the presence of dissolved oxygen in BFW beyond a maximum permissible limit is the cause of tube failure due to oxygen pitting in the form of a localized attack. The buildup of material in the form of deposits because of the ingress of contaminants...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
..., (a) 400×, (b) 1000× Fig. 6.38 SEM micrograph showing coalescence of creep cavities along the grain boundaries, 5000× Fig. 6.36 Close-up views of a superheater tube at the failure location Fig. 6.39 Close-up view at the failure location. The rupture is in the form of a fish...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Fig. 13.21 Scanning electron micrographs showing (a) the corrosion products formed on the T-11 superheater tube sample at the tube bend ( Fig. 13.20 ) and (b) the corrosion products on area C at high magnification. EDX analysis showed essentially iron with tiny chromium peak. Area C showed presence...