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transition metals

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... Abstract Structurally differentiated intermetallic phases are important constituents in the microstructure of aluminum alloys, with the potential to influence properties, behaviors, and processing characteristics. These phases can form in aluminum-silicon alloys with transition metals (Fe, Mn...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... of these failure modes. Some body-centered cubic and hexagonal close-packed metals, and steels in particular, exhibit a ductile-to-brittle transition when loaded under impact and the chapter describes the use of notched bar impact testing to determine the temperature at which a normally ductile failure transitions...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
...Abstract Abstract The toughness of a material is its ability to absorb energy in the form of plastic deformation without fracturing. It is thus a measure of both strength and ductility. This chapter describes the fracture and toughness characteristics of metals and their effect on component...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
..., the columnar grains stop growing, and the remaining liquid solidifies as equiaxed grains. Hence, it is common to find columnar grains near the crucible wall and equiaxed grains in the center. The morphology is often called the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET), as shown in Fig. 15.6 . In metal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract Many metallic components, such as retorts in heat treat furnaces, furnace heater tubes and coils in chemical and petrochemical plants, waterwalls and reheater tubes in boilers, and combustors and transition ducts in gas turbines, are subject to oxidation. This chapter explains how...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
.... , The Physical Metallurgy of Maraging Steels , Met. Rev. , Vol 12 , 1968 , p 115 – 128 10.1179/mtlr.1968.13.1.115 24.13 Wilson R.K. , Ed., Maraging Steels—Recent Developments and Applications , TMS-AIME , Warrendale, PA , 1988 24.14 Toth L.E. , Transition Metal Carbides...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
..., were summarized by Davis, Ray, et al. [1976] . The strength and stiffness of other amorphous alloys were given in a parallel article by Davis, Chou, et al. [1976] , and are listed in Table 12.1 . Data are given for metallic glasses that are made up of a transition metal (TM) and a metalloid (M...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... composition ranges. Only the transition metals (e.g., iron, nickel, titanium, and zirconium) have appreciable solubilities for carbon, nitrogen, and boron. Very small atoms, such as carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen can fit in the spaces between the larger atoms. These sites are called interstitial sites and can...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... for Engineers , ASM International , 2001 The four elements carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and boron have such small diameters that they can form interstitial solid solutions. In general, these interstitial solid solutions have somewhat limited composition ranges. Only the transition metals (e.g., iron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... temperature, but dislocation motion in the bcc structure becomes severely restricted at low temperatures. This well-known effect of all bcc metals is described by the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature, which refers to the region in which the toughness drops, and the fracture mechanisms and features...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... of test, but also the criterion used. Specifications for ship steels often require a certain Charpy V-notch 15 ft-lb transition temperature (the temperature at which the energy absorption in a V-notch Charpy test is 15 ft-lbs). In general, bcc metals and many hcp metals exhibit a ductile-brittle...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... of the compounds discussed here are high-melting compounds that exhibit excellent oxidation resistance and strength in the 1093 to 1649 °C temperature range. Such beryllides are found in a number of binary systems between beryllium and the transition metals. Some important properties of high-temperature oxidation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... an orthorhombic structure isomorphous with transition metal carbides of the M 2 C type. The transition carbide with the latter structure was designated as eta (η) carbide . The structures of the epsilon and eta carbides are very similar and are differentiated primarily by electron diffraction spots that come...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
..., tantalum is immune to attack by almost all acids except hydrofluoric acid. The refractory metals with a bcc crystal structure display a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) behavior typical of such metals. When tested below the transition temperature (that is, where cleavage...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
.... alloying elements alpha titanium alloys alpha-beta titanium alloys atomic structure beta titanium alloys intermetallic compounds TITANIUM IS A MEMBER of the group of elements called the transition elements. These metals have several important characteristics, including high strength...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... of electricity, they exhibit a range of resistivities. There are a number of reasons for this variability. The resistivity of a metal depends on the density of states of the most energetic electrons at the top of the band, and the shape of the N ( E )- E curve at this point. In the transition metals, apart...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., the valence electrons become localized and the bond becomes more covalent. The transition metals, such as iron and nickel, have incomplete d -shells and exhibit some covalent bonding, which helps explain their relatively high melting points. Tin is interesting in that it has two crystalline forms, one which...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
..., Graphite, Diamond and Fullerenes , Knovel , 2001 8.6 Kroto H. , Heath J. , O’Brien S. , Curl R. , and Smalley R. , Nature , Vol 318 , 1985 10.1038/318162a0 Crystalline ceramics are compounds consisting of metal and nonmetal ions bonded either covalently...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
..., which is less than the ideal value of 1.632. At the alpha-to-beta transformation, the bcc phase is denser than the hcp phase, resulting in a negative volume change on heating, an unusual transition [ Gupta 1994 ]. Based on the Engel-Brewer theory, the alkaline earth metals have an sp electronic hybrid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... iron and nickel in the periodic table, cobalt has many similar properties as these other two more familiar transition metals. Its melting temperature (1493 °C, or 2719 °F), density (8.85 g/cm 3 , or 0.322 lb/in. 3 ), thermal expansion coefficient (13.8/K, or 7.66/°F), thermal conductivity (69.0 W/m · K...