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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... to read isothermal transformation and continuous-cooling diagrams and how to recognize the effect of various alloying elements. alloying elements constitutional diagram continuous-cooling diagram isothermal transformation diagram phase transformations It has been established...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Fig. 9.1 (Part 1) Pearlite formation (at 705 and 650 °C) in isothermal transformation of 0.8% C eutectoid steels. 0.81C-0.07Si-0.65Mn (wt%). Figure 9.2 completes this series. (a) Austenitized at 860 °C, transformed at 705 °C for 150 s. Picral. 250×. (b) Austenitized at 860 °C...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the characteristics of eutectoid transformations, a type of solid-state transformation associated with invariant reactions, focusing on the iron-carbon system of steel. It describes the compositions, characteristics, and properties of ferrite, eutectoid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract This chapter provides a short introduction to phase transformations, namely, the liquid-to-solid phase transformations that occur during solidification and the solid-to-solid transformations that are important in processing, such as heat treatment. It also introduces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... and nickel atoms. It discusses the difference between interstitial and substitutional solid solutions and the factors that determine the type of solution that two metals are likely to form. It also addresses the development of intermediate phases, the role of free energy, transformation kinetics, liquid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
...Abstract Abstract Transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels are characterized by their excellent strength and high ductility, which allow the production of more complicated parts for lightweight automotive applications. This chapter provides an overview of the compositions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
...) 0.40 Induction hardening Simple shapes 0.50 Complex shapes 0.33 Approximate transformation temperatures of low-alloy steels Table 1 Approximate transformation temperatures of low-alloy steels Grade Transformation point, °C (°F) Heating (a) Cooling (b) AISI UNS...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Isothermal and continuous cooling transformation (CT) diagrams help users map out diffusion-controlled phase transformations of austenite to various mixtures of ferrite and cementite. This chapter discusses the application as well as limitations of these engineering tools in the context of heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Martensite (a) Quenched from above beta transus. (b) Beta phase is mechanically unstable and can transform to martensite with application of stress. Also, a thermal omega may be present. Effect of alloy element on nose time Table 4.3 Effect of alloy element on nose time Coefficient...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... The microstructure of carbon steel is largely determined by the transformation of austenite to ferrite, cementite, and pearlite. This chapter focuses on the microstructures produced by diffusion-controlled transformations that occur at relatively low cooling rates. It describes the conditions...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract This chapter examines the isothermal phase transformations of the iron-carbide system. The discussion includes the formation of ferritic, eutectoid, hypoeutectoid, hypereutectoid, bainitic, and martensitic microstructures as well as their properties, composition...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... on transformations and on the classification of steels by carbon content. The chapter ends with a discussion on the effect of time on transformation and on the use of time-temperature-transformation diagrams. allotropy austenite-to-ferrite transformation carbon content commercially pure iron heat treatment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
...Abstract Abstract This chapter introduces the basic ferrous physical metallurgy principles that need to be understood by the metallographer. The discussion focuses on the variations in microstructures that are generated as a result of the phase transformations that occur during both heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter examines two important strengthening mechanisms, martensitic and bainitic transformations, both of which occur under nonequilibrium cooling conditions. It explains how time-temperature-transformation diagrams are constructed and how they are used to understand...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
...Abstract Abstract During fusion welding, the thermal cycles produced by the moving heat source causes physical state changes, metallurgical phase transformations, and transient thermal stresses and metal movement. This chapter begins by discussing weld metal solidification behavior...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... The formation of martensite is characterized by its athermal transformation kinetics, crystallographic features, and development of fine structure. This chapter describes the diffusionless, shear-type transformation of austenite to martensite and how it affects the morphology and microstructure...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Bainite is an intermediate temperature transformation product of austenite. This chapter describes the conditions under which bainite is likely to form. It discusses the effects of alloying on bainitic transformation, the difference between upper and lower bainite, and the influence of solute...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... on hardenability and tempering response. It discusses the significance of critical temperatures, the use of transformation diagrams, and types of annealing treatments. It also provides information on heat treating furnaces, the effect of heating rate on transformation temperatures, quench and temper procedures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
...Abstract Abstract The properties of martensite and the mechanisms that govern its formation are the key to understanding hardness and the hardenability of carbon steel. Martensite is a transformation product of austenite that requires rapid cooling to suppress diffusion-dependent transformation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... discusses the spheroidization of normalized and annealed steels by heating at subcritical temperatures. It explains how lamellar pearlite and proeutectoid cementite transform when heated and how deformation prior to heating affects both the mechanism and kinetics of spheroidization. It also explains how...