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toughness models

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... to analyze the crack growth behavior of various materials, including steels and nonferrous alloys, under constant-amplitude loading. The authors then deal with the effects of complex loading using crack retardation and crack closure models to show how load fluctuations can slow crack growth rates and even...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... Abstract This chapter presents an overview of some of the major causes of tool and die failures. The chapter describes fracture and fracture toughness of tool steels, and the influence of factors such as steel quality and primary processing, mechanical design, heat treatment, grinding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... by heat treatments. It also provides information on residual stress evaluation and prediction techniques. distortion heat treatment residual tensile stress CHAPTER 19, “Low Toughness and Embrittlement Phenomena in Steels,” in this book describes causes of low toughness and embrittlement...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... the flaw, lowering the stresses, or increasing the toughness of the steel. Summary The fundamental basis for designing a structure or mechanical component to be fracture resistant is to study the interrelationship among the important elements in fracture. The most basic fracture prevention model...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
...) structures are generally not acceptable except where superior fracture toughness is required. The yield strength of Ti-6Al-4V at 970 °C (1775 °F), which is 30 °C (50 °F) below the beta transus, is 41.4 MPa (6 ksi) at a strain rate of 5 mm/mm/min (5 in./in./min); at 930 °C (1700 °F), yield strength...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... Abstract This appendix presents an analytical model that estimates damage rates for both crack initiation and propagation mechanisms. The model provides a nonarbitrary definition of fatigue crack initiation length, which serves as an analytical link between initiation and propagation analyses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... tolerance or increased toughness through the addition of second-phase reinforcements in the form of fibers, particulates, or whiskers. Among these, the continuous fiber has the highest potential for improving tensile stress-strain behavior and damage tolerance. Significantly improved tensile strains...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780216
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... to puncture are discussed. This section also discusses standard impact tests, along with their associated results. The largest single disadvantage of these tests is that none of them provides true material properties. Fracture toughness, which is a material property derived from the use of linear elastic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... of this condition is controlled by the applied loading conditions and by material properties such as fracture toughness and flow strength. Fig. 3 Schematic representation of a crack growing in service under fatigue loading. Failure occurs if a f ≥ a c . a 0 , start-of-life defect size; a f , defect...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... the performance of the design process of a component. A heat-transfer model, coupling with a phase transformation model, a thermomechanical model, and a thermochemical model, is also considered. The chapter further provides information on the failure aspects of and heat treatment procedures applied to welded...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpclas.t64560001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-353-9
..., plates) are presented. This information, coupled with the hardenability information, allows estimating the hardness distribution which is developed by the hardening heat treatment. Tempering is reviewed since most steels require subsequent tempering (mainly for improved toughness). Austenitizing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... they compare with metals. It begins by describing the fracture characteristics of ceramics and glasses along with typical properties and subcritical crack growth mechanisms. It then discusses the properties of engineering plastics and the factors affecting crack formation and growth, fracture toughness...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... initiation, the kinetics of craze growth, and the effect of crazing on toughness of the plastic. In addition, the article provides information on various tests to determine stress-to-craze value, strain-to-craze value, and fracture toughness of the plastic. ductile-brittle transitions crazing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... Abstract This chapter discusses various types of material fracture toughness and the methods by which they are determined. It begins with a review of the basic principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, covering the Griffith-Irwin theory of fracture, the concept of strain energy release...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1983
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mlt.t62860237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-348-5
... temperature. The source of the temperature dependence of τ * is thermal activation, thermal energy assisting dislocations to overcome their obstacles. The thermal activation of dislocations overcoming obstacles may be modeled by considering a point particle free to move in one dimension placed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... with the steps involved in determining strain energy release rates, stress intensity factors, J-integrals, R-curves, and crack tip opening displacement parameters. It also covers fracture toughness testing methods and the effect of measurement variables. crack tip opening displacement elastic-plastic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
...-Toughened Epoxy, Part 1: Microstructure and Fracture Studies , Polymer , Vol 24 , 1983 , p 1341 – 1354 10.1016/0032-3861(83)90070-8 16. Kunz-Douglass S. , Beaumont P.W.R. , and Ashby M.F. , A Model for the Toughness of Epoxy-Rubber Particulate Composites , J. Mater. Sci. , Vol...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... a single point fracture toughness value; however, a single point on the R curve may be chosen to characterize the entire process. Such points as Ji c can be determined from an R curve to give a single point fracture toughness value for ductile fracture behavior. Ductile fracture is controlled...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... the toughness of the steel. Wrought or cast steels will arrive with a certain grain size. This grain size can be changed significantly by further heat treatment or forging operations, and it is important to understand what controls these changes. The shape and some of the properties of grains in steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter addresses the issue of die failures in hot and cold forging operations. It describes failure classifications, fatigue fracture and wear mechanisms, analytical wear models, and the various factors that limit die life. It also includes several case studies in which finite...