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tool steel

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract The possible classification for tool steels is their division into four groups according to their final application: hot-worked, cold-worked, plastic mold, and high-speed tool steels. This chapter mainly follows such division by application, but the grade nomenclatures used here are...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... Abstract This chapter provides a detailed account of the development of tool steel technology. It begins with a record of steelmaking in ancient and medieval times. The crucible melting process involved in making steel is then discussed. This is followed by a description of the increasing use...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... early part of the 20th century, but this practice was used only for making tool steels, high alloy steels, and stainless steels where scrap had to be high quality to meet specifications. Scrap was also used in large quantities in the open hearth process to make ordinary carbon steels and engineering...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... Abstract This chapter discusses the development of stainless steel. It begins with some information on the discovery of stainless steel. This is followed by a discussion on the most important patents issued for stainless steel. Applications of stainless steel beyond their original use in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... Alloy steels were first developed during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. They did not debut until steel itself was readily available, and that did not take place until after 1870. The only alloy steel before this time was a tool steel invented by Robert F. Mushet in 1868. Mushet’s steel was very...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... metallurgist in America, for his work on tungsten for lamp bulbs, his research into grain size and its influence on mechanical properties, his invention of many alloys of aluminum, and his work on the behavior of high-speed tool steels during secondary hardening. He also trained many young metallurgists who...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... stress-strain curve where plastic deformation starts) of about 40,000 pounds per square inch (psi) of cross-section; heat-treated alloy steel has a yield strength of 150,000–200,000 psi, increasing to as high as 250,000–300,000 psi for special applications and to 400,000 psi and higher for tools and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Tools steels are defined by their wear resistance, hardness, and durability which, in large part, is achieve by the presence of carbide-forming alloys such as chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, and vanadium. This chapter describes the alloying principles employed in various tool steels, including...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... charcoal or rice husks ( Ref 2.1 , 2.2 ). Similar processing in crucibles to produce small batches of steel for weapons and tools continued well into the nineteenth century. In Europe, carburized wrought iron was referred to as blister steel because of the appearance of blisters or scale on the steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... carbon and alloy steels are the stainless steels and tool steels, each much more heavily alloyed than carbon or alloy steels described previously. The ranges of chemical composition for stainless and tool steels are described in later chapters. The preceding discussion shows the great importance of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... cutting tools, including the tool steels discussed in Chapter 24, “Tool Steels,” are a major cost of production for some steel parts and have received considerable attention in the literature ( Ref 9.34 – 9.36 ). The same section of steel, depending on the orientation of notches, crack planes, and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
.... Steels with carbon contents of 0.5% or greater have very low impact toughness and are used only where high hardness, wear resistance, and/or edge retention are of prime importance. For example, hand tools, such as screwdriver blades and cutting blades of all sorts, are made from quenched and low...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... steels and tool steels. Fig. 8.15 Schematic diagram of grain-boundary pinning by a second-phase particle. Source: Ref 8.24 Second-phase particle distributions in austenite can be so effective that no grain growth occurs within reasonable heating times at relatively low austenitizing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Isothermal and continuous cooling transformation (CT) diagrams help users map out diffusion-controlled phase transformations of austenite to various mixtures of ferrite and cementite. This chapter discusses the application as well as limitations of these engineering tools in the context of heat...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
..., vertical sections through ternary systems, in which the amount of a given component is held constant, are used to establish hot working and heat treatment schedules. For example, Fig. 24.4(b) in Chapter 24, “Tool Steels,” in this book shows a vertical section through the Fe-C-Cr system at 13% Cr. This...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... silicon contents are increased in O6 oil hardening and A10 air hardening tool steels in order to promote graphite formation for improved machinability ( Ref 3.2 ), and boron nitrides have been found to be effective in nucleating graphite in a medium-carbon steel containing 0.53% C ( Ref 3.3 ). Fig...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... intergranular fracture along grain-boundary cementite ( Ref 13.4 ). The latter observations were obtained in an experimental study, but for air-hardening tool steels, similar brittle fracture may occur after high-temperature normalizing, and normalizing is not recommended ( Ref 13.5 ). Fig. 13.3 (a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... significance, while microstructures with plate martensite for engineering applications are somewhat limited, but found in some tool steels and the high-carbon case structures of carburized steels as discussed in later chapters. In order to follow the historical development of the understanding of martensitic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
.... Surface and near-surface microstructures in load-bearing machine components, tools, and other structural components manufactured from steels and cast irons are directly subjected to much higher static and cyclic stresses, friction, wear, and corrosive environments than interior microstructures. Thus...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... design, minimizing abrupt changes in section size and shape, preheating, slower rates of cooling, interrupted cooling, and selection of high-hardenability steels that can be hardened by slower rates of quenching, even by air cooling, as is the case for some tool steels, are all approaches that can be...