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titanium chloride

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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 14.2 Potential-pH diagram for titanium-water system at 85 °C (185 °F). Chloride ion activity is 10. All other ionic activities are 10 5 . emf, electromotive force; SHE, standard hydrogen electrode More
Image
Published: 01 January 2015
) and other chlorides, is treated with hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and then distilled to further purify the titanium chloride (TiCl 4 ). Pure or nearly pure titanium chloride is clear in color. More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... at temperatures above approximately 650 °C (1200 °F) and interacts with oxygen to dissolve it interstitially at temperatures as low as approximately 427 °C (800 °F). Chlorides or hydroxides deposited on the surface of titanium can accelerate oxidation. Titanium and its alloys resist H 2 S and CO 2 gases...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... exhibit SCC in chloride. Pitting (anodic breakdown) Localized corrosion that can pit or lead to holes in the material When potential exceeds breakdown for oxide layer; increase in temperature and acidity lower breakdown potential * Adapted and revised from David E. Thomas, Titanium and Its...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... stimulate SCC have been discovered over the years. In the mid-1950s, numerous titanium alloys were found to be susceptible to SCC in red-fuming nitric acid ( Ref 10.3 , 10.4 ). In the same period, laboratory creep testing of titanium alloy turbine blades revealed SCC under chloride salt deposits...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... reported the successful operation of a magnesium-reduction unit for making 40 kg (90 lb) batches of titanium. This unit was similar to the one previously reported, except for the batch size. In 1952, the Bureau reported the removal of magnesium and magnesium chloride from titanium sponge by vacuum...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... Abstract This appendix provides corrosion rate values for various grades of commercially pure and alloyed titanium. The values were derived from published sources and in-house laboratory tests. These data serve only as a starting point or initial guideline for corrosion performance...
Image
Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 14.1 General corrosion behavior of commercially pure titanium and titanium-palladium alloys compared with other metals and alloys in oxidizing and reducing environments, with and without chloride ions. Each metal or alloy can generally be used in those environments below its respective More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract Containment materials used in power generating applications are subject to molten salt corrosion. This chapter reviews the data relevant to corrosion problems in molten salt environments. It describes the corrosion behavior of steel, aluminum, nickel, and titanium alloys in molten...
Image
Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 14.10 Temperature-pit limits for crevice corrosion of titanium grades 2, 7, and 12 in concentrated sodium chloride (NaCl) brine More
Image
Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 10.6 Fractograph revealing typical transgranular cleavage and ductile river markings and flutes associated with aqueous chloride SCC in α/β titanium alloys. Source: Ref 10.6 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
..., gold, beryllium, aluminum, carbon, vanadium, molybdenum, tungsten, chromium, selenium, titanium, and uranium. Cannot be plated . Bismuth, cadmium, tin, lead, and zinc (electroplate with copper, then use electroless nickel). A wide variety of nonmetals such as plastics, wood, glass, carbide...
Image
Published: 01 December 2001
Fig. 2 Effects of alloying on the crevice corrosion of titanium in saturated sodium chloride brines. (a) Unalloyed grades 1, 2, 3, and 4. (b) ASTM grade 12 containing 0.3% Mo and 0.8% Ni. (c) ASTM grades 7 and 11 containing 0.15% Pd. The same resistance can be achieved with ruthenium (0.10 More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... chloride and includes a list of structurally similar compounds. amorphous materials chemical bonding chemical elements crystal structures MATERIALS are so important to civilization that the terms stone age, bronze age , and iron age have been used to describe periods of history. Perhaps...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... of titanium that represents the main incentive for its use, the following four categories are interrelated: Corrosion resistance to chemicals Corrosion resistance to seawater and other chlorides Mechanical properties Physical properties Many factors must be considered when evaluating...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... the ability to passivate and thereby exhibits a high degree of immunity to attack by most mineral acids and chlorides. Titanium is non-toxic and generally biologically compatible with human tissues and bones. The combination of high strength, stiffness, good toughness, low density, and good corrosion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... from a shaped electrode. ECM can generate difficult contours and provide distortion-free, high-quality surfaces. For ECM of titanium alloys, a very common electrolyte is sodium chloride used at concentrations of about 0.12 kg/L (1 lb/gal). CHM is the controlled dissolution of a workpiece material...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... low-alloy steels, hardenable stainless steels, austenitic stainless steels, copper-base alloys, titanium and titanium alloys, aluminum and aluminum alloys, and nickel and nickel alloys. It identifies material-environment combinations where SCC is known to occur, provides guidelines on how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...-containing stainless steels. However, most chloride environments require higher alloys containing greater amounts of chromium and molybdenum, such as alloy G-3 (UNS N06985), alloy 625 (UNS N06625), and alloy C-22 (UNS N06022), for optimal corrosion performance ( Ref 22 ). Exceptions are titanium and its...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... in ceiling support rods made from type 304, type 316, and a German titanium-stabilized type 316 (DIN 1.4571). The mechanism of these swimming pool atmosphere failures is not understood, and their occurrence was not predicted ( Ref 4.54 ). Marine atmospheres have caused transgranular chloride SCC in type...