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titanium alloys

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... of the common nonferrous alloys that can be hardened through heat treatment. The nonferrous alloys covered include aluminum alloys, cobalt alloys, copper alloys, magnesium alloys, nickel alloys, and titanium alloys. age hardening aluminum alloys cobalt alloys copper alloys heat treatment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
..., and niobium), and some are strong carbide formers (e.g., titanium, niobium, molybdenum, and chromium, if present in sufficient quantity; see Ref 8 ). Ferrite and austenite stabilizers expand the respective phase fields. Figures 30 and 31 illustrate the effect of various substitutional alloy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... required for aluminum, boron, chromium, cobalt, niobium, molybdenum, nickel, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, zirconium, or any other element added to obtain a desired alloying effect. The specified minimum for copper does not exceed 0.40%. The maximum specified content does not exceed the following...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... molybdenum, silicon, titanium, vanadium, zirconium, tungsten, and niobium (see also Figure 5 in Chapter 3 ). Ferrite stabilizers require a much lower alloying addition than the austenite stabilizers for an equivalent increase in hardenability. However, with many of these ferrite stabilizers, the competing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... is used in such small quantities, is not considered an alloy. Other alloying elements such as copper, cobalt, tungsten, and titanium are not usually specified in alloy steels but are used in stainless and tool steels. Although there may be several reasons for using certain alloy steels as opposed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... composition, classification, and properties of unalloyed and low-alloy cold-worked tool steels; medium and high-alloy cold-worked tool steels; and 18% nickel maraging steels. annealing cold-work tool steel distortion high-speed tool steel hot-work tool steel mold steel normalizing tempering...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... sulfur. Except for chromium, any of them may be restricted to a very low level or to a specific range for a specific alloy. Additional elements that may be intentionally added include aluminum, copper, molybdenum, niobium, titanium, tungsten, and, in some cases, rare earth elements such as cerium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.9781627083263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... are at least another 100 °C (180 °F) higher in alloys with strong carbide-forming elements (e.g., titanium, chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, niobium, and tungsten) than they are in carbon steels. These increases are a result of large increments in the critical temperatures of alloy steels. Table 3...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... compounds or solid solutions in the alloying element. Examples include silicon, chromium, tungsten, molybdenum, phosphorus, vanadium, titanium, beryllium, tin, antimony, arsenic, and aluminum. Ferrite stabilizers, type II: These are the same as type I except that intermetallic compounds or constituents...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... to be annealed, accuracy of the temperature controls, time available for the process, and end quality required. In many cases, the purpose of an annealing method is specific to a given type of alloy. For example, the types of heat treatable aluminum alloys use solution annealing (followed by...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... grades of commercially pure titanium and alpha and near-alpha, alpha-beta, and beta titanium alloys. It describes primary and secondary fabrication processes, including melting, forging, forming, heat treating, casting, machining, and joining as well as powder metallurgy and direct metal deposition. It...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses the processes, procedures, and equipment used in the production of iron, steel, aluminum, and titanium alloys. It describes the design and operation of melting and refining furnaces, including blast furnaces, basic oxygen and electric arc furnaces, vacuum...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses the processes used in manufacturing to thermally alter the properties of metals and alloys. It begins with a review of the iron-carbon system, the factors that affect hardenability, and the use of continuous cooling transformation diagrams. It then explains how...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... molten bath. Source: Ref 5 Vacuum melting is used for nickel-base superalloys, titanium alloys, and refractory alloys, to protect them from oxygen, which, in the case of the nickel-base alloys, forms deleterious inclusions, and in the case of titanium, could cause an exothermic reaction that...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... from forging stock that contains these types of discontinuities. Titanium alloys: Discontinuities that are most likely to occur in titanium alloy forgings are usually carried over in the bar or billet. Typical discontinuities in titanium alloy forgings are α-stabilized voids, macrostructural...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... somewhat less. Metals with a hexagonal closed-packed (hcp) structure have very restrictive slip systems and these metals (e.g., magnesium and titanium) must generally be formed warm or hot. Due to their fcc structure and their relatively slow rate of work hardening, aluminum alloys are highly formable...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
..., corrosion-resistant, and high-strength alloys are used in a wide variety of such applications. Typical alloys include alloy steels with hardnesses of 50 to over 60 HRC and heat treated alloys with strength levels as high as 2070 MPa (300 ksi). Additional materials include stainless steels, titanium alloys...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
..., aluminum, aluminum-silicon alloy, Zn-5Al alloy, 55Al-Zn alloy, and lead-tin alloy to carbon steels. Metals such as chromium and titanium cannot be applied to steel by hot dipping because of their high melting points. Tin, which prior to 1937 was applied only by hot dipping, is now almost always...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
...: Ref 9 Table 3 Application of powder processing methods Properties Method Conventional die compaction Metal injection molding Hot isostatic pressing Powder forging Material Steel, stainless steel, brass, copper Steel, stainless steel Superalloys, titanium, stainless steel...