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tin-bismuth (tin-bismuth plating alloy, general)

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
..., bismuth, cadmium, gold, indium, lead, silver, tin, and zinc. Of these, the cadmium-containing alloys have largely been removed from manufacturers’ catalogs because they offer no clear advantages over other solders, and their use is subject to restrictions arising from the toxicity of cadmium fumes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... metals and solders. Tin gives the alloy the ability to wet and bond with metals such as steel and copper; unalloyed lead has poor wetting characteristics. Tin combined with lead and bismuth or cadmium forms the principal ingredient of many low-melting alloys. Arsenical lead (UNS L50310) is used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... in strip form is a common electrical connector. Bronzes are copper alloys in which the major alloying addition is neither zinc nor nickel. Although there are exceptions, bronzes are generally classified by their major alloying element or elements. Tin (Cu-Sn-P) Bronzes Tin (Cu-Sn-P) bronzes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... known to humans, is nontoxic, soft and pliable, and suitable for cold rolling. Tin resists corrosion, making it an ideal coating for other metals. Tin has a low coefficient of friction, and the addition of alloying elements such as copper, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, and silver increase its hardness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
... cost (more expensive than silver) Lithium 179.0 Highly reactive Tin 231.9 Nontoxic. Ample supply Bismuth 271.3 Obtained as a minor by-product of lead Thallium 303.5 Toxic Cadmium 320.8 Toxic vapor Lead 327.5 Toxic Availability of potential alloying elements in lead...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... from recycled material. Steel and iron can easily be separated magnetically from other scrap. The scrap is either remelted in an electric arc furnace or added to pig iron in a basic oxygen furnace. All grades of steel can be recycled because most alloying elements are oxidized during processing. Tin...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
... • Carley D.R. , Nearhoff R.W. , and Denning R. , 1984 . Moisture Control in Hermetic Leadless Chip Carriers with Silver-Epoxy Die Attach Adhesive , RCA Review , Vol 45 (No. 2 ), p 278 – 290 • Dogra K.S. , 1985 . A Bismuth Tin Alloy for Hermetic Seals , Brazing Soldering...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... such as lead or bismuth form small insoluble globules and are effective chip breakers. If present in sufficient quantity (generally about 0.5% each), lead and bismuth permit increased machining speeds and reduce the need for cutting fluids. Intermetallic constituents such as CuAl 2 or FeAl 3 similarly act...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., or low-melting-point, alloys include binary, ternary, quaternary, and quinary alloys containing bismuth, lead, tin, cadmium, and indium. The term fusible alloy refers to any of the more than 100 white metal alloys that melt at relatively low temperatures, that is, below the melting point of tin-lead...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... of solubility in the two phases. A phase diagram also may be thought of as a map of permissible phases. Equilibrium between two components consists of single-phase regions and two-phase regions. In a solid alloy of lead and tin, solid lead can dissolve tin, and solid tin can dissolve lead. Figure 2.2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.9781627082976
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
..., modern solders contain no lead. The major use of lead is in automobile batteries. In the past tin was used to plate steel cans. However, the high price of tin has almost eliminated this use. It is used as an alloying element in copper and titanium alloys. Annealing Aluminum Take two pieces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.9781627082839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... metal. Lead, for example, does not alloy with iron and will not wet it. Tin, on the other hand, does form an alloy with iron, so a tin-lead solder will wet steel. Fig. 7.2 Principle of capillary attraction for selected liquids sandwiched between two clean glass plates: (a) when immersed in water...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... foundry practices are required to minimize hot tearing and shrinkage defects. Tin is the major alloying element in compositions developed for bearing applications. It has also been employed with bismuth, lead, and cadmium at lower concentrations to provide free-machining properties. The 850-series...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... in such heat-transfer systems are subject to molten metal corrosion as well as other problems. This chapter reviews the corrosion behavior of alloys in molten aluminum, zinc, lead, lithium, sodium, magnesium, mercury, cadmium, tin, antimony, and bismuth. It also discusses the problem of liquid metal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Copper Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Vanadium Niobium Aluminum Titanium Boron Tungsten Zirconium Calcium Cerium Lead Bismuth Nitrogen Specific Alloying Elements Boron End-Quench, or Jominy, Test Phosphorus Sulfur Oxygen Hydrogen Tin...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
..., lead, silver, tin, and tellurium. By far the most damaging element was found to be bismuth, followed by tellurium, selenium, lead, and silver; the presence of tin had almost no harmful effects. The presence of only 0.2 ppm bismuth in IN-100 was shown to reduce its creep life by 20%. Elements...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Trans. , Vol 87 , 1979 , p 551 – 450 22. Thwaites C.J. and Pryterch J.C. , Structural Stability of Flake Graphite Iron Alloyed with Tin and Chromium , Foundry Trade J. , Jan 1969 , p 115 – 121 23. Gundlach R.B. , Elevated Temperature Properties of Alloyed Gray...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
.... These problems can be completely eliminated by good technique. Clamps, are generally machined from plate stock about ¼ in thick that has been cut into blocks about ½ by 1½ in, as shown in Fig. 2-4 . Holes are drilled into each end of the clamp halves. One half is threaded to receive a bolt of suitable...