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time-temperature-transformation diagrams

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpclas.t64560003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-353-9
... diagram showing that the diagram is displaced to longer times for the larger austenite grain size. (From Atlas of Isothermal Transformation Diagrams , U.S. Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh (1950), Ref 26 ) Abstract Abstract This chapter describes the two types of Time-Temperature-Transformation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... examines several time-temperature-transformation diagrams, which account for the effect of cooling rate. age hardening annealing beta transformation phases quenching time-temperature transformation titanium alloys THE PROPERTIES OF TITANIUM ALLOYS are governed by chemistry and micro...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... with excess cementite bounding the grains. 1000×. Source: Ref 4 Fig. 6 Time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram for a eutectoid (0.77%) carbon steel. Source: Ref 3 Abstract Abstract Steel is an important material because of its tremendous flexibility in metal working and heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... in Ref 15.2 Fig. 15.14 Effect of carbon content on time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram. Source: Ref 15.2 Fig. 15.27 Typical austempering heat treatment. Source: Ref 15.2 Fig. 15.15 Increasing carbon and alloy content lowers the M s temperature. Source: Ref...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., and metallurgy. The use of time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams in understanding the phase transformations and the changes in the isothermal transformation curves due to the addition of carbon and other alloying elements are also discussed. isothermal phase transformations iron-carbide system...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... at the indicated temperatures and times, and were then quenched. “F” indicates the occurrence of flakes. “NF” indicates absence of flakes. Source: Ref 10 Fig. 10.12 Austenite fraction transformed in ferrite and pearlite during the isothermal treatment of steels AISI 4140 and 8640 at 650 °C (1200 °F...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... the unique microstructures bainite . Only later, in 1939 and 1942, R. F. Mehl was the first to use the term in the literature ( Ref 6.2 , 6.3 ). Figure 6.1 is a schematic time-temperature-transformation diagram, first published by Zener ( Ref 6.4 ) and reprinted by Bhadeshia ( Ref 6.5 ), that clearly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... of the Breakdown of Supercooled Austenite , Metalurgiya , Moscow , 1965 10.15 Vander Voort G.F. , Ed., Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams for Irons and Steels , ASM International , 1991 Diagrams that define the transformation of austenite as a function of time at constant temperatures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... throughout a part. Fig. 20.3 Schematic time-temperature-transformation diagrams showing surface and center cooling rates for (a) conventional quenching, (b) martempering, and (c) modified martempering. Source: Ref 20.4 An important requirement for martempering is that no transformation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... of transformation at various temperatures was called a time-temperature-transformation diagram, or TTT diagram; many of these diagrams were determined for numerous alloy steels in the years following the original work of Bain and Davenport ( FIG. 5.6 ). The TTT diagram is not the most useful tool for practical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... is very dependent on temperature, particle shape, and time. Figure 8.17 illustrates this with a time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram showing the time for transformation at two different temperatures. It is seen that the fraction transformed curve is sigmoidal. The initial rate is slow due...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... 1040 steel was water quenched from 845 °C (1550 °F). Fig. 10 Effect of carbon content in plain carbon steel on the hardness of fine pearlite formed when the quenching curve intersects the nose of the time-temperature diagram for isothermal transformation. Source: Ref 10 Fig. 23...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... to (b) the time-temperature-transformation diagram. Source: Ref 4.7 The shape of the isothermal transformation curve for eutectoid steel ( Fig. 4.3 ) is explained by the temperature dependence of the nucleation and growth rates of the pearlite colonies. Figure 4.8 shows that both N and G...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpclas.t64560307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-353-9
...Severity of quench values (H) and film coefficients for several quenchants Table 9-1 Severity of quench values (H) and film coefficients for several quenchants Quenchant Quenchant temperature Quenchant velocity Grossmann number, ( H = h /2 k ) Effective film coefficient °C °F m...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
..., sometimes the lower rows of holes can be spaced wider, such as at 10 mm (0.50 in.). The impingement of quenchant is most important in the stage of quenching that involves cooling below the “knee” of the time/temperature transformation diagram. Actual quenchant impingement on the workpiece is a function...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... severity (cooling power) Fig. 14 Comparison of the heat-transfer coefficients achievable with different gas-quenching media for bulk-loading and single-component quenching Source: Ref 18 Fig. 15 Comparison of time-temperature transformation diagrams for AISI (a) 1045, (b) 5140, (c...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... into isothermal baths at the temperatures shown. Source: Ref 9.2 Fig. 9.20 Time-temperature diagrams of transformations during heating of steel. The equilibrium phase is reached after a long holding time at the indicated temperature. (a) Eutectoid steel (0.8 wt% C). (b) 0.45 wt% C steel. (c) 1.2 wt% C...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... temperature and holding at temperature for time sufficient to complete transformation. Cooling at a predetermined cooling rate and cycle follows this. The cooling rate is usually faster than that used for annealing, and there is not generally a holding time at elevated temperature during the cooling cycle...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
..., the morphology (shape/location) of the phases changes with prior treatments. The alpha phase present at the time of cooling (primary alpha) can remain relatively globular (equiaxed), but the transformed beta (martensites or alpha) can be very acicular or elongated. The amount of equiaxed alpha and the coarseness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... transformation is characterized by cooperative movement/ displacement of the atoms and is not time dependent. The iron-carbon phase diagram, though it gives information about the nature of the phases present for any given composition and temperature, does not tell us about the kinetics of transformation (i.e...