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time proportioning

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
.... It explains how induced electrical current causes metal to heat in proportion to their electrical resistance and how it affects temperature dependent properties such as resistivity and specific heat and, in turn, heating rates and efficiencies. It also discusses the effect of hysteresis and explains why eddy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... in a large change in the control signal, larger than if just a proportional action were used. Reset action takes into account the time the actual workpiece temperature is away from the setpoint. The longer the time, the larger the correction. Probably the largest megawattage use of induction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
... a knowledge of the factors that influence the test results. This chapter provides a metallurgical perspective for such interpretation. The topics covered include elastic behavior, anelasticity, damping, proportional limit, yield point, ultimate strength, toughness, ductility, strain hardening, and yielding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.9781627083553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
...-copper alloy Fig. 3.4 Typical tension stress-strain curve for a ductile metal indicating yielding criteria. Point A is the elastic limit; point A′ is the proportional limit; point B is yield strength or offset (0 to C) yield strength; 0 is the intersection of the stress-strain curve...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... that only delivers measurements prevents use of simple digital test patterns, and requires the tester to perform calculations which greatly increases test time. BIST that produces an analog result, such as a DC voltage proportional to a parameter of interest, must convert that analog result to a digital...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... / 2 ) ( x − μ ) 2 σ 2 π where y is the number of times a value occurs in the distribution; e is 2.7182, which is a constant that is the base of the natural logarithm; x is the value whose frequency is to be found; μ is the mean; σ is the standard deviation; and π...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... (without offsets) if the part design allows. Offset parting planes have the potential for causing higher parting plane flash. Figure 6.1 illustrates the potential for higher parting plane flash due to an offset parting plane. Die steel growth is proportional to its temperature. If one part of the die...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
...) are contact-type sensors. Their electrical resistance is proportional to temperature. Typical detector materials are platinum, copper, and nickel. They are more stable, accurate, and interchangeable than thermocouples, but even the platinum detectors have an upper temperature limit of approximately 750 °C...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... and adhesive die wear are inversely proportional to die hardness, die wear is proportional to die temperature, which is significantly affected by contact times [ Dahl et al., 1998 , and Schey, 1983 ]. The billet temperature influences the flow stress of the material. As discussed previously, increased...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.9781627083096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdmht.t52060155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-343-0
... directions or parameters entering into the computations of flow, fatigue crack growth, and fracture are continuously changing with time. The result is a proliferation of the complexities of analysis. It is not surprising, therefore, that many approaches have been proposed for treating multiaxial fatigue...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... is normal to the diffusion direction, per unit time, t. Therefore the flux, J , is: (Eq 5.1) J = d n A d t The flux of atoms across the plane at x = x ′ in Fig. 5.4 is the number of atoms crossing the plane area per unit time and is proportional to the gradient dc/dx...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... strain immediately disappears. With the passage of time, the anelastic strain recovers. The remaining strain is the plastic strain. In uniaxial loading, three criteria for the initiation of yielding have been used: the elastic limit, the proportional limit, and the yield strength. Fig. 12.6...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... deformation than rubber. The maximum elastic strain in crystalline materials usually is less than 0.2 %. For most materials (not rubber) it is safe to assume that the strain is proportional to the stress. The amount of elastic deformation is proportional to the stress, and can be described by e = S...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pb.t51230047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-351-5
... at the interface between Al-12Si braze and molybdenum as a function of process temperature for three different holding times Abstract Abstract This chapter presents an overview of families of brazing alloys that one is likely to encounter in a manufacturing environment. It discusses the metallurgical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.9781627082563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
.... The associated alloying, which must occur to form a metallic bond, should not result in the formation of either a large proportion of brittle phases within the joint or of significant concentrations of brittle phases along interfaces or other critical regions of the joint. Even ductile phases can have weak...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdmht.t52060001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-343-0
... energy creep curves creep fatigue creep rupture testing creep strain cyclic loading deformation maps grain-boundary cracking CREEP is time-dependent deformation that occurs at high temperature relative to the melting point of metallic materials. The creep regime for metals is commonly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... signals, but it is also important when high edge-placement accuracy (EPA) is needed for precise determination of switching times. For a given SNR waveform, EPA is improved as edge rise-time is reduced (rise-time is proportional to 1/bandwidth). It should be noted that measured rise-times are impacted...