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three-electrode measurement

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Published: 01 December 2003
Fig. 8 Guarded three-terminal electrode system for measuring volume and surface resistance or conductance of flat specimens. g ≤ 2 t volume resistivity, g ≥ 2 t surface resistivity. Source: Ref 8 More
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Published: 01 December 2003
Fig. 9 Guarded three-terminal electrode assembly for measuring volume and surface resistance or conductance of tubular specimens. D 0 = ( D 1 + D 2 )/2; L > 4 t ; g ≤ 2 t volume resistivity, g ≥ 2 t surface resistivity. Source: Ref 8 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... Abstract Corrosion testing and monitoring are powerful tools in the fight to control corrosion. This chapter provides a general overview of three major categories of corrosion tests, namely laboratory tests, pilot-plant tests, and field tests. It begins with brief sections describing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... resistant under the conditions of the test ( Ref 8 ). Several electrode configurations and methods of measurements are introduced and discussed in Ref 8 . Three types of electrode systems are shown in Fig. 7 to 9 . Fig. 7 Taper-pin electrodes for measuring the insulation resistance of (a) plate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Abstract This chapter discusses the principles and procedures of electrochemical measurements used to investigate corrosion behaviors. It begins by presenting a diagram of a basic potentiostatic circuit, which consists of a working electrode and an auxiliary or counter electrode suspended...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... plane entirely clear of the furnace shell so that the charge may be added. The furnace top has three carbon electrodes that protrude through the roof and may be extended or retracted. The front of the furnace has a pour spout, while 180° away there is an opening in the shell wall through which slag may...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... associated potential range when the electrode potential is more negative than adjacent potentials where the corrosion rate is depressed; that is, the passive region. active metal. A metal ready to corrode, or readily corroded. active potential. The potential of a corroding material. activity. A measure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
.... It then presents a simple model of a galvanically coupled electrode, in which the metal is represented as an array of anode and cathode reaction surfaces. The chapter goes on to develop the related theory of mixed electrodes, showing how it can be used to predict corrosion rates based on measured potentials...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... potential differences can be measured. ( E r x n = E O 2 /OH − − E Fe 2+ /Fe can be measured because it is a difference.) Therefore, half-cell potentials are measured with respect to a reference electrode . Reference electrodes are constructed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... as a function of current density or charge transfer in a given area. The chapter explains how to measure and plot electrode potentials and currents and how to interpret the resulting polarization curves. It also discusses the effects of concentration gradients, explaining how they cause diffusion and, in some...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
..., because its oxygen content is constant at 20.9% by volume at sea level, and the process furnace atmosphere, respectively. The electromotive force (emf) thus generated, and measured via the electrodes attached to the sheath, is related directly to, and provides an accurate quantification of, atmosphere...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... , typically a few tens of nm thick, is electrochemically grown on all surfaces of the porous Ta-anode [1] . Liquid electrolyte, MnO 2 , or conductive polymer are three commonly used counter electrodes, with the latter becoming the most commonly used. The positive connection is typically created by welding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... with one pass and three with two passes. Figure 8 also shows four small pores, one each in the third, fourth, sixth, and ninth passes. In this case, the porosity was induced by deliberately varying the electrode stickout. Fig. 8 Transverse section of the X-65 pipe steel shown in Fig. 6 and 7...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... process is most versatile, but for large cast-weld construction it is limited in application because changing electrodes and other interruptions typically limit the weld deposit rate. The submerged arc process, on the other hand, due to its continuous operation with wire electrodes, deposits metal at much...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... was observed when a bench-type resistance spot welder was being used to join two crossed wires by direct-current welding for an electronic assembly. The measured weld strength was 4 kg (9 lb). After maintenance on the weld head, the cables to the electrodes were accidentally reversed, and the subsequent welds...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
..., for the ions in dilute solution, and 1 atm pressure for the hydrogen), the potential difference in the limiting idealized case at 25 °C, with the electrodes not electrically connected, is 440 mV, with the platinum on which the hydrogen reaction occurs being positive. It is important to note that measurement...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., and the highest rates of metal loss are normally associated with shielded metal arc electrodes using a basic coating. In seawater, for example, the corrosion rate for a weld made using a basic-flux-coated consumable may be three times as high as for weld metal from a rutile-flux-coated consumable. Fewer data...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
..., respectively, and Cl shows temperatures measured in the graphite crucible. Three distinct regions of different cooling rates are observed. In region I, a sharp temperature increase occurs in the mold temperatures within a few minutes after pour. This rise is due to the superheated melt and release of latent...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
.... A discontinuity constituting a danger to the fitness-for-service of a weld is a defect. By definition, a defect is a condition that must be removed or corrected ( Ref 1 ). The word “defect” should therefore be carefully used, because it implies that a weld is defective and requires corrective measures...