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three-dimensional printing

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... Ceramics , J. Am. Ceram. Soc. , Vol 83 , 2000 , p 1557 – 1574 10.1111/j.1151-2916.2000.tb01432.x • Utela B. , Storti D. , Anderson R. , and Ganter M. , A Review of Process Development Steps for New Materials in Three Dimensional Printing (3DP) , J. Manuf. Process. , Vol 10...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... for adjusting performance, and nonconductive electro-rheological fluids are a related idea. Initially, ink jet printing was used for printing from the home computer. The devices were fast, accurate, and inexpensive. That same idea is now employed to build three-dimensional structures by layering the powder...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
...) process. (a) Schematic cross-sectional image of improved wire mesh heat exchanger. Cross-sectional images of pyramidal fins deposited on (b) nickel-aluminum and (c) aluminum bond coats. Source: Ref 8.16 Fig. 8.2 Practical examples of three-dimensional-printed products using the cold gas...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... and, to some degree, the performance of the component before selecting a final fabrication method. In earlier days, prototypes were made out of plastics or by shaping an easy-to-machine material. Three-dimensional binder printing allows the fabrication of the prototype from the desired material. This allows...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... (thus the name thermoset, i.e., sets with application of thermal energy). Thermosetting polymeric materials are used extensively in binder-jetting-type three-dimensional printing processes. Early binder formulations relied on empiricism and natural ingredients; cellulose and paraffin wax were...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... strength associated with a slurry approach is suitable. Fig. 4.7 Tests for green strength rely on a bending arrangement. The most common is the three-point test, involving two lower support rods and a single loaded top rod. The sample is fractured with little deflection. A parallel test relies...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... three-dimensional components can be achieved with an array of cameras multiplexed to a common image processor or with a computer controlled camera scanning system. Such systems have been successfully applied to the inspection of printed circuit boards in the electronics industry and subassemblies...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... and widely used of all visual tools ( Fig. 15 ). It allows three-dimensional viewing, clearly and sharply, to magnifications as high as 180×. There are several variations to consider with this equipment; they are lens combinations, the stand, and the zoom option. The lens combinations may be wholly or partly...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... features Highly developed Three-dimensional interpretation Very limited capabilities Highly developed Overall Best for qualitative measurement of structured scene Best for qualitative interpretation of complex, unstructured scene Source: Ref 1 Evaluation of machine and human...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... to form one-, two-, or three-dimensional molecules. The mer units of polymers are bonded to one another with strong covalent bonds. Most polymers contain mainly carbon in their backbone structures because of the unique ability of carbon to form extensive, stable covalent bonds. While covalent bonds...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... practice to aim at a plain parting plane, or at least a parting plane with minimum number and depth of offsets. Parting plane offsets influence the tooling and process costs, and they affect dimensional consistency in three ways: The tooling cost and the tooling maintenance costs are higher...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.9781627083195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
.... Resistors are formed by creating long narrow strips of a resistive conductor. Capacitors are formed by parallel conductors separated by insulating material. Three-dimensional parts can be made by photostereolithography or 3-D printing using a liquid that polymerizes on exposure to ultraviolet light...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... portion of the mast, which has been repaired with an aluminum coating. Figure 11.5(f–h) show representative dense microstructures taken from the three types of coatings, along with the comparative bond adhesion strengths ( Fig. 11.5i ), and Fig. 11.5(j) shows that the cold spray coating has...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... applications. Thus, it is possible to combine the results from the physical and chemical characterization of a material with the thermal response of fabrication tools in order to develop and control “smart” cure cycles. There are three levels of control for curing thermosets. The first level regulates...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... control servoactuator. If the signal was lost, the servoactuator would drive the flight control surface to its extreme position, and the aircraft would crash. To address this concern, the F-16 development engineers designed quadruply-redundant signals to each servoactuator. Any three of the four...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... for 42 μm titanium powder vacuum sintered at three temperatures. Faster rates of densification (steeper slopes) are associated with shorter times and higher temperatures. Fig. 8.4 Sintered density versus particle size for zinc sulfide heated in nitrogen for 120 min at 1000 °C (1830 °F...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... industry by eliminating the need for many of the investment casting process steps. This elimination has led to significant cost and lead-time reduction for development hardware. Processes such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and other three-dimensional (3-D) printing technology can provide...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... for resolution of fine detail and for highest image quality. The apochromats are corrected spherically for two colors (blue and green normally) and chromatically for three colors (red, green, and blue normally). Lateral chromatic aberration is corrected in the eyepiece. Plano objectives are characterized...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... steel masses must be transformed into solid products with the required shapes and dimensions. Three main process families are responsible for the majority of the transformation of liquid steel into the required shapes and dimensions: foundry casting, ingot casting, and continuous casting...