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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... are to produce narrow, flat-rolled material where thickness control is not critical and thinner gages are not required. For wider material, such as wide plate, four-high mills provide better roll rigidity and closer thickness control. Four-high rolling mills are also used to produce both hot and cold rolled...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
.... Modifications to the current forming system such as higher-tonnage presses, appropriate die materials, effective tool coatings, efficient lubricants, and higher binder forces should be considered. The implications of using thinner gages on the elastic stiffness and corrosion resistance need to be deliberated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... are summarized in Table 2 . Table 2 General trends of ductile brittle behavior Factor Trend Ductile Brittle Temperature Higher Lower Rate of loading Lower Higher Geometry No stress concentration Stress concentration Size Smaller or thinner Larger or thicker Type...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... in the center; this is an advantage, although the additional sprues add to process costs. Multiple-sprue design permits the design of a thinner face, because the two to four sprues on the rim facilitate feeding through the bead seat instead of through the face wall. The thinner face is also beneficial...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... is constrained from moving wholly into the die. Thus, the section that enters the die is stretched more and must become thinner. Whether the material becomes so thin locally that it fails is governed by its work-hardening rate. If it work hardens faster than it becomes thinner, the strain is distributed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... in different sections of the failed product. Metallography of the sections indicated that the thinner sections in the product were through hardened. Figure 26 shows the through-hardened microstructure. Sectional density measurements indicated that the thicker sections had a density of >7.2 g/cc...
Book Chapter

By Soumya Subramonian
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... (in square inches) (stock thickness, t , multiplied by length or perimeter of cut, l ). Approximate values for the constant k (as determined by experiment for low-carbon steel) are ( Ref 1.2 ): 1500 for sheet metal thinner than 1.57 mm (0.060 in.) when the cut is near an edge or near a preceding...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... are relatively low. Even very large workpieces can be deformed with equipment of reasonable size. Ductility is high, allowing for large deformations. Complex part shapes can be produced. Cold working produces better surface finishes, can impart higher strengths, and allows thinner products than hot...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... lead press to the modern automatic extrusion plant represents an interesting chapter in the history of extrusion technology. Recently, to meet the requirements of larger-sized, thinner-walled extrusion shapes with improved dimensional accuracy, prestressed frame structure presses have been adopted...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... are not intrinsically lighter than other steels, but they are strong enough that thinner gages can be used to reduce vehicle weight. Steel remains the dominant engineering alloy for building cars and structures because of its affordability, performance, manufacturability, recyclability, and wide range of applications...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... assemblies containing relatively thin skins less than 0.040 in. (1.0 mm) or thinner. For composite laminates, the tap test may be capable of detecting delaminations in the first few surface plies but it cannot detect deeper defects. About the smallest defect that can be detected is ½ in. (12.7 mm...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... to eight times greater than that for OFC. For thicknesses greater than 38 mm (1.5 in.), the choice of plasma arc or OFC depends on other factors such as equipment costs, load factor, and applications for cutting thinner plates and nonferrous metals. Industrial lasers are used for drilling, heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... the voltage contrast of an inverter driver is shown. The inverter has many individual four-fin devices connected in parallel to increase the output drive current. Strong voltage contrast was also observed on smaller devices even down to a single fin. Where the remaining Si is thinner strong voltage contrast...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... of PDMS in IC production process. [17] The one described in this paper is the die attach material (DA) that is used to attach the die to the lead frame. In the microelectronics industry, there is a trend to move to thinner packages and therefore thinner dies, the silicon chip can be as thin as 75 μm...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... coat) help to ease casting ejection from the mold. Coatings influence surface tension at the mold–metal interface, promoting metal flow, especially in thinner wall sections. The nature and thickness of coatings influence the heat transfer rate at the mold–metal interface and the solidification...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... deformation. Plastic deformation leaves defects in crystals, thus making continued slip more difficult. This is the reason the stress-strain curves in tension show stress rising with strain. Straining a metal, whether in a tension test or by rolling or drawing it into thinner sections (in cold work), causes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... to heat the 150 mm (6 in.) piece through, and the push-up is obtained on the thinner piece. The thickness of the thinner component is referred to as the governing metal thickness because it dictates the heat input. However, the thermal mass of the larger component may make spot welding applications...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... to the failing net. Most often in the standard analysis, those thick metal pitches are unwanted layers. Physically thinner layers are required for 7nm and future technology nodes where the metal layers with a thickness smaller than 40nm, this is the case for M1 & M2 layers with the quadruple...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... the paper. [1] Lapping usually refers to grinding/polishing parallel to a surface, as opposed to across or into a surface. Lapping can be used to remove layers or bulk from a sample, making it thinner in cross-section. This is usually used to remove extraneous substrate material prior to mounting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... COF, μ m , is smaller for thicker scales (50 μm and 150 μm) than for the thinner scale (10 μm), as shown in Fig. 7.18 . The flat dies peeled off the scale, and the peeled scale behaved like a lubricant ( Ref 7.24 ). Geiger et al. ( Ref 7.25 ) modified the cup drawing test as shown in Fig. 7.19...