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thermodynamics

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... Abstract This chapter provides an overview of the thermodynamics of extrusion. It begins by presenting a thermodynamic model of the extrusion process expressed in the form of finite difference equations. It then explains how the model accounts for multiple sources of heat generation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
... thermodynamics From the 1930s through the 1960s, “solid state physics” flourished and the true characteristics of matters were elucidated using statistical thermodynamics. “Thermodynamics of ordering” is one of the important items, the exquisite theories including the B-W-G model were published one after...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
.... Borelius ( Ref 6 ) developed thermodynamics of nucleation in a solution by assuming the existence of the aforementioned very small ensemble with the same composition as the product phase (hereafter called “the compatible assembly”). 8.2.2 Driving Force of Nucleation in a Solution The driving force...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
... Abstract This chapter provides a classification of the types of microstructural changes and transformations and then reviews each type. It presents the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) equation and explains the thermodynamics of eutectic solidification and eutectoid transformation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
... change by mixing is large. Polymer solutions are good examples, and they were analyzed thermodynamically by P.J. Flory et al. (see Eq 3.67 in Exercise 3.13 ). 3.2 Approximation of Free Energy by Regular Solution Model <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="t52320055-ref1">(Ref 1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
... for a multicomponent system can be obtained by mutual support of experiments, computer models, and thermodynamics. However, a correct “map” may be just an ornament if one does not know how to use it. In this chapter, the significance of the “map” and methods to make a use of it for studies and development of new...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
... Abstract This chapter considers various behaviors of microstructural interfaces from a thermodynamics viewpoint. It discusses energy of surface and interface, the Gibbs-Thomson Effect, grain-boundary segregation, smooth and rough interfaces, and grain growth. gas molecules grain boundary...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
... by Kirkendall, et al. immediately after the World War II ( Ref 2 ), and thermodynamic analysis by Darken et al. ( Ref 3 , 4 ). 6.3.1 Kirkendall Effect E.O. Kirkendall, et al. in the United States (1947) manipulated a Cu-Zn sample as shown in Fig. 6.6(a) by plating 70-30 brass that was wound molybdenum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Abstract This chapter provides a thorough introduction to the electrochemical thermodynamics that govern electrode reactions associated with corrosion. It begins with a review of the thermodynamic criteria for the stability of chemical reactions based on Gibbs free energy and explains how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter explains how the principles of chemical thermodynamics are used in the construction and interpretation of phase diagrams. After a brief review of the laws of thermodynamics, it describes the concept of Gibbs free energy and its application to transformations that occur...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract This chapter provides a fundamental understanding of beryllium reduction thermodynamics as a prerequisite for subsequent chapters on extraction, chemical processing, and corrosion. It examines a number of reduction methods along with a potential refining process, highlighting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.9781627083577
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 1.7 The genealogy of thermodynamics and its development into the thermodynamics of microstructures More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 2.19 Thermodynamic properties of magnetic materials. (a) The changes in the heat capacity (a1), the enthalpy (a2), and the free energy (a3) of bcc Fe according to magnetic transformation. (b) Unless magnetic transition occurs, A 3 transition will not occur. (c) Is hcp Fe nonmagnetic? See More
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Published: 01 March 2012
Fig. 13.3 Comparison of thermodynamically calculated compositions of liquid alloys at the five-phase invariant equilibria with those identified experimentally as bulk metallic glass formers for the Zr-Cu-Ni-Ti system. Source: Ref 13.3 as published in Ref 13.2 More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 6.56 Thermodynamic equilibrium chlorine partial pressure ( p Cl 2 ) as a function of temperature for several environments (100HCl, Ar-33HCl, and H 2 -30HCl) and several chlorides. Source: Ref 57 More
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Published: 01 July 2009
Fig. 15.2 Binary phase diagram of aluminum-beryllium. Curves are from thermodynamic calculations, and their position do not always correspond to the assessed values. Source: Murray and Kahan 1988 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
... understanding of the U , S , and F of the crystal. It covers basic concepts of thermodynamics of magnetic transition and discusses the role and the meaning of magnetic transition in iron and steel. The chapter concludes with a general discussion on an amorphous phase from a thermodynamic viewpoint...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
... observers to the threshold of the “atomic and molecular world,” below the nanometer scale. However, one cannot understand the essence of “things” only from accumulating the results of observation. A philosophy beyond observation, especially one based on thermodynamics, was needed so that metallography...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter provides an overview of a computational method, called CALPHAD, used for the study of phase equilibria in multicomponent systems. It describes the thermodynamic models and calculation techniques employed in the software and explains how it applies to complex alloys used...