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thermodynamic potential

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Abstract This chapter provides a thorough introduction to the electrochemical thermodynamics that govern electrode reactions associated with corrosion. It begins with a review of the thermodynamic criteria for the stability of chemical reactions based on Gibbs free energy and explains how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... energies and chemical potentials, and shows how the equilibrium state of an alloy can be obtained from free-energy curves. binary solid solutions chemical potential Gibbs free energy interatomic bonds phase diagrams single-component systems thermodynamics THERMODYNAMICS is a branch...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... in an electrochemical cell. As described in the second half of this chapter (see the section “ The Kinetics of Aqueous Corrosion ”), these concepts include anodic and cathodic reactions, the mixed-potential theory, and the exchange currents. The Thermodynamics of Aqueous Corrosion Thermodynamics is a powerful...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract This chapter provides a fundamental understanding of beryllium reduction thermodynamics as a prerequisite for subsequent chapters on extraction, chemical processing, and corrosion. It examines a number of reduction methods along with a potential refining process, highlighting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... to be positive for the reaction to be thermodynamically favored as written in Eq 1 , the reduction potential E O 2 / OH − has to be larger than E Fe 2+ /Fe . If it was not, then Reaction 1 would proceed in the reverse direction, which means that the electrode Reactions 2 and 3...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... at 1090 °C (2000 °F). ammonia chemical kinetics nitridation thermodynamic potential 4.1 Introduction In air or combustion atmospheres containing nitrogen, nitridation can take place under certain exposure conditions. In most cases, oxidation dominates the high-temperature corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1983
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mlt.t62860001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-348-5
... potentials and their derivatives. Table 1.11 Thermodynamic potentials and their derivatives. Potential: Differential Form: G dG = VdP – SdT F dF = – PdV – SdT H dH = TdS + VdP U dU = TdS – PdV Varied/Fixed Derivative Varied/Fixed Derivative Varied/Fixed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Solution databases, unlike substance databases, contain thermodynamic descriptions for phases that have potentially very wide ranges of existence, both in terms of temperature and composition. For example, the liquid phase usually extends across the whole of the compositional space encompassed by complete...
Image
Published: 01 July 2000
Fig. 3.15 Example of overpotential curves for two electrochemical reactions illustrating that the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters place each reaction in different regions of the range of potentials and log |i ex | More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
... thermodynamics Carnot Joule Statistical thermodynamics Boltzmann Maxwell Einstein The laws of thermodynamics Helmholtz Clausius Lord Kelvin Chemical thermodynamics van t Hoff Ostwald Arrhenius Thermodynamics of microstructure Gibbs (1873~1879) "Phase" "Phase equilibrium" "Phase rule" "Chemical potential...
Image
Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 55 Relationship between pH-potential conditions for SCC susceptibility of carbon steel in various environments and the stability regions for solid and dissolved species on the Pourbaix diagram. Note that severe susceptibility is encountered where a protective film (phosphate, carbonate More
Image
Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 9 Pourbaix diagram for the nickel-water system, indicating the E/pH regions of thermodynamic stability of various dissolved and solid species and the regions of “corrosion immunity,” “passivation,” and “active corrosion.” Dashed lines show the equilibrium potentials for the (a) H 2 /H 2 O More
Image
Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 1.14 Relationship between pH-potential conditions for severe cracking susceptibility of carbon steel in various environments and the stability regions for solid and dissolved species on the electrochemical equilibrium diagram. Note that severe susceptibility is encountered where More
Image
Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 12 Relationship between pH-potential conditions for severe cracking susceptibility of carbon steel in various environments and the stability regions for solid and dissolved species on the Pourbaix diagram. Note that severe susceptibility is encountered where a protective film (phosphate More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
...-Calc ( Ref 1 ) is a powerful, flexible software package available from Thermo-Calc Software AB for performing various kinds of thermodynamic and phase diagram calculations for multicomponent systems. The software is based on the so-called CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagrams) method ( Ref 2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.9781627083577
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.9781627082969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 January 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdktmse.t56100001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-470-3
..., (Eq 7) Δ G = Δ H − T Δ S where Δ G is the change in Gibbs free energy, Δ H is the change in enthalpy, T is the temperature in kelvin, and Δ S is the change in entropy. The Gibbs free energy of a material or phase is its thermodynamic potential. In examination...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... Gibbs thermodynamic potential of phase i G T temperature gradient, Δ T /Δ x i components number k B Boltzmann constant k i partition coefficient of component i , C S i / C L i m liquidus slope, Δ T /Δ C N s number of the atom’s...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... such as oxidizing potential and pH, lists of the type given in Table 1 should be used only for a general overview of SCC. A complete description of SCC must treat both the thermodynamic requirements and kinetic aspects of cracking. A knowledge of the thermodynamic conditions will help determine whether...