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thermochemical reaction rates

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
..., powder flow and rheology, and chemical analysis. The chapter then describes the general categories of powder fabrication methods, namely mechanical comminution, electrochemical precipitation, thermochemical reaction, and phase change and atomization. It provides information on the two largest...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... and coating, thermochemical, and thermal. Implantation changes surface chemistry, similar to the other thermochemical techniques, but because of unique processing and the associated very shallow hardened surface layers, implantation is often considered a separate class of surface treatment. Plating...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... limitless because of the ability to deposit almost any material by vapor deposition and the ultrahigh heating and cooling rates of thin surface layers heated by electron and laser beams. This chapter describes some of the newer processes used to apply thermochemical modifications, coatings, and high-energy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... to form: (Eq 21.4) BaCO 3 → BaO + CO 2 and the carbon dioxide reacts with charcoal to form carbon monoxide: (Eq 21.5) CO 2 + C ↔ 2 CO Note that this reaction is reversible, and as the temperature is increased, the rate of carburization increases. Since...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
...-quality titanium powder by magnesium reduction, followed by acid leaching to remove the excess magnesium and MgCl 2 ( Fig. 1.1 ). Fig. 1.1 Reaction vessel for making titanium powder using the Kroll process. The equipment was capable of producing 7 kg (15 lb) batches. In 1949, the Bureau...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1983
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mlt.t62860343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-348-5
... the heat generation rate from a chemical reaction exceeds the ability of the metal to dissipate it, thus leading to a thermal runaway. The steady-state combustion that follows ignition is a new equilibrium state — one in which the heat generation rate, which is now governed by a new set of rates...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
.... This classification is determined on the basis of the likely reaction of the solder with the substrate material, which, in the temperature range covered by solders, is necessarily a metal because there is insufficient thermal activation available for wetting nonmetals. In most cases, wetting of a component...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... systems are used to add shell strength. Regardless of mold type (e.g., investment or rammed graphite), foundry practice focuses on methods to control both the extent of the reaction of the molten alloy and mold and the subsequent diffusion of reaction products inward from the cast surface. Depth...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
...: At 1495 °C (2725 °F): δ-ferrite + Liquid = γ-iron (austenite), a peritectic reaction, defined on cooling as a solid phase combining with liquid phase to form a single solid phase. At 1148 °C (2100 °F): Liquid = Fe 3 C + γ-iron, a eutectic reaction, defined on cooling as a liquid phase forming two...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.9781627083157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... to reaction with a gas containing elemental oxygen, such as air. Elevated temperatures increase the rate of oxida- tion. oxidative wear. (1) A corrosive wear process in which chemical reaction with oxygen or oxidizing environment predominates. (2) A type of wear resulting from the sliding action between two...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
..., or magnetic changes as a function of temperature. For example, heat given off while new phases form on cooling, as measured by thermocouples attached to specimens, causes a change in cooling rate. This change marks the temperature of the beginning of a phase transformation as the high-temperature phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... FERRITIC NITROCARBURIZING accomplishes surface treatment of a part in the ferrite region of the iron-carbon equilibrium diagram ( Fig. 1 ). As the process takes place in the ferrite region, both nitrogen and carbon diffuse into the steel surface. The process is categorized as a thermochemical treatment...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... various cleaning applications ranges from simple dissolution of contaminants to more complex reactions involving the thermochemical oxidation of organics and the electrolysis of molten salts. Ultrasonic Cleaning Ultrasonic cleaning uses sound waves passed at a very high frequency through liquid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... processes, such as grinding, honing, and lapping, small particles are removed from the workpiece by abrasion with a hard tool. Abrasive processes have lower material removal rates and higher energy requirements than conventional processes but can produce closer tolerances and finer surface finishes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
..., the maximum value less than the monotonic ten- unwanted portion of material. sile strength of the material. eutectic. (1) An isothermal reversible reaction fatigue crack growth rate. The rate of crack in which a liquid solution is converted into extension caused per fatigue (da/dN) cycle two or more...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... for the performance of a proper annealing cycle are heating, annealing or holding temperature, holding time at temperature, furnace atmosphere, and slow cooling. Heating The heating cycle should be uniform and the heating rate compatible with the part dimensions and the envisaged holding temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... relatively uniform erosion of the coating by windborne solid particles, rainfall, and some chemical reaction with pollutants. The available information indicates that such erosion occurs at a reasonably constant rate, which averaged 0.33 μm/yr (0.013 mil/yr) for several alloys exposed to an industrial...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.9781627082617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
..., and thermochemical, where surface chemistry is changed during heating, for example nitriding and carburizing. In this chapter carburizing and nitriding produced in conventional gas atmospheres are discussed; plasma and vacuum carburizing and plasma nitriding are described in Chapter 22, “Surface Modification...