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thermally active defects

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract This chapter describes three approaches for 3D hot-spot localization of thermally active defects by lock-in thermography (LIT). In the first section, phase-shift analysis for analyzing stacked die packages is performed. The second example employs defocusing sequences...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
.... , and Wirth K. , Thermal Laser Stimulation of Active Devices in Silicon – A Quantitative FET Parameter Investigation , IRPS, 357 - 360 ( 2004 ). 19. Nikawa K. and Tozaki S. , Novel OBIC Observation Method for Detecting Defects in Al Stripes Under Current Stressing , ISTFA , 303...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
... of the <110> type, for a total of 12 slip systems. On the other hand, the bcc crystal structure does not have close-packed planes, and slip generally requires thermal activation. The densest packed planes in the bcc crystal structure are of the {110} type (six distinct planes), and the shortest lattice...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... localization. The limits of bitmapping are overcome by TIVA (Thermally Induced Voltage Alteration), OBIRCH (Optical Beam Induced Resistance Change) and Soft Defect Localization (SDL) for failure in the devices’ periphery of the array. The SDL techniques requires adaptation to memory test systems in order...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... non-propagating defects. The defects do not propagate because they are not mid-gap recombination sites, and therefore, non-absorbing and not electrically active under most conditions [1] . Such lasers are vulnerable to damage from electrical overstress (EOS), for example, but after damaged, usually...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... failures (typically failures due to defects on the semiconductor device such as contamination or misprocessing). These issues are normally best addressed by yield improvement activities within the chip fabrication and assembly processes. The final or third (Wearout Failure or End-Of-Life) phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract Many defects generate excessive heat during operation; this is due to the power dissipation associated with the excess current flow at the defect site. There are several thermal detection techniques for failure analysis and this article focuses on infrared thermography with lock...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... as sources and sinks of other defects and are less active in deformation and corrosion than ordinary grain boundaries. Fig. 13 Color micrograph from cold-worked and annealed alpha brass (Cu-30Zn) with many annealing twins (some with arrows). Grains and twins are tinted various colors according...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.9781627083898
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pb.t51230221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-351-5
... three different active constituents Typical process conditions used, suggesting some correlation between joint strength and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the interfacial compounds formed by reaction Active constituent Bending strength, MPa CTE of the interfacial compound formed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... characteristics of common failure modes for a 72-cell module with 3 amps/cell of current output Thermal Imaging of Modules Many different techniques have been developed to characterize solar cells and their defects. The most commonly used is thermal imaging with an camera sensitive to infrared black...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
..., figure 9 . Figure 9 Thermal emission on board level while stimulating the electrical defect show a single hot spot within the region of multiple capacitors. Further thermal measurements at higher optical magnification identify a local thermal emission in the direct environment to a single...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract This article is a detailed account of the mechanisms of fatigue failure of polymers, namely thermal fatigue failure and mechanical fatigue failure. The mechanical fatigue failure is discussed in terms of fatigue crack initiation and fatigue crack propagation. thermal fatigue...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... decomposition and evaporation are both thermally activated processes sensitive to temperature, T , nominally following an Arrhenius temperature (K) dependence: (Eq 7.4) dM dt = A exp − Q R T In this equation, M equals the mass, t is the time, dM / dt is the mass loss rate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... °C), Joules/kg °Kelvin 680 710 570 490 Cost Least expensive More expensive Much more expensive Most expensive Thermal expansion percentage is an index of: Expansion defects such as scabs, finning, and veining Refractory stability against sand burn-on Lower thermal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1983
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mlt.t62860133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-348-5
... Zirconium 2.40 2.00 3.99 Figure 4.36 Lorenz ratio for pure metals and defect-free metals. Figure 4.37 Values of the total Lorenz number for several classes of commonly used structural materials. Figure 4.38 Reduced thermal conductivity vs. reduced temperature of 22 metallic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... intensity Temperature Thermal and mechanical fatigue cycles Corrosion concerns Improper maintenance Material Defects With the advent of strict quality-assurance controls and nondestructive inspection systems, manufacturing and material defects are not as common as in early years. Yet...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110506
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...-cell coupling faults. An aggressor operation is a memory access that activates one or more bit cells into a failing state. The trade off for having a shorter test is the lack of ability to locate aggressor operations that other N 3/2 or N 2 algorithms can achieve. There are many variations of march...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... ). Twins are two-dimensional defects of lower stored energy than the stored energy in high-angle grain boundaries. Therefore, twin boundaries are less effective as sources and sinks of other defects and are less active in deformation and corrosion than ordinary grain boundaries. Fig. 2.20 Color...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... problems associated with that process. Problems such as gas entrapment, mold erosion and spalling defects, slag and dross inclusions, misruns and undesirable thermal gradients within the casting, have been traditionally attacked by designing gating systems that provide smooth, low energy flow, proper...