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thermal stress

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... Abstract During fusion welding, the thermal cycles produced by the moving heat source causes physical state changes, metallurgical phase transformations, and transient thermal stresses and metal movement. This chapter begins by discussing weld metal solidification behavior and the solid-state...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses different thermal processes applicable to the various alloy groups of stainless steels, namely austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, precipitation hardening, and duplex stainless steels. The processes discussed include soaking, annealing, stress relieving...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... affect impact and tensile strength, shrinkage, thermal expansion, and thermal conductivity. It examines the relationship between tensile modulus and temperature, provides thermal property data for selected plastics, and discusses the effect of chemical exposure, operating temperature, and residual stress...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... deals with stresses, strains, and deformations in engineering structures subjected to mechanical and thermal loads. The analysis of composite structures is more complicated than that of conventional metallic structures. While metallic structures can usually be treated as isotropic materials in which the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... subsequent use may be due to unacceptably high and/or nonuniform stresses that are imparted during the quenching process and may even be unpredictable. As already discussed, quench cracking occurs due to thermal contraction stresses coupled with the volumetric expansion that accompanies the martensitic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550511
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
...-measuring machine structures Thermal processing Heat recovery, hot-gas cleanup, general thermal processing Thermal stress resistance, corrosion resistance, and dimensional stability at extreme temperatures Compact heat exchanges, heat exchanger tubes, radiant tubes, furnace components, insulators...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... stage heating to avoid cracking due to thermal stresses. Soaking at 800°C until uniform temperature is achieved minimizes this risk. Another concern during austenitizing is superficial carbon loss, an example of which is shown in Fig. 6(e) . Heating in air to 1050°C can cause surface carbon to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
...-reverse power requirements. Such thermal cycling imposes a major effect on oxidation behavior of alloys and coatings, that of protective oxide spallation. This phenomenon is normally attributed to stresses arising from the different coefficients of thermal expansion of metal and protective oxide. To...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... drastically reduced, as in laser welding. The high thermal expansion of austenitic stainless steel can cause high residual stress around welds, which may require annealing to eliminate. Another serious threat posed by thermal stresses is hot cracking. This can occur to material that has just solidified...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... solution. It also explains the aspects of a phase diagram that shows what phase or phases are present in the alloy under conditions of thermal equilibrium. Finally, a discussion on the applications of equilibrium phase diagrams is presented. atomic bonding body-centered cubic equilibrium phase...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses the processes used in manufacturing to thermally alter the properties of metals and alloys. It begins with a review of the iron-carbon system, the factors that affect hardenability, and the use of continuous cooling transformation diagrams. It then explains how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... surface layer induced by thermal oxidation leads to density increase and weight loss; both processes contribute to shrinkage of the oxidized layer, which generates tensile stresses and possibly spontaneous cracks. The crack faces provide additional diffusion surfaces and accelerate the material...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... otherwise would undergo solid-state transformations over the range of deposition temperatures. Furthermore, the low deposition temperature of plasma CVD coatings limits the residual stresses due to the large mismatches in thermal expansion that can lead to coating cracking and delamination. Table 7...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... thermal imaging such as forward bias, reverse bias, and lock-in, and emission imaging such as electroluminescence and photoluminescence imaging. electroluminescence imaging failure analysis forward bias imaging lock-in imaging photoluminescence imaging reverse bias imaging solar photovoltaic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... characteristics of the fiber-matrix interface, and the residual stress present in the composite due to thermal expansion mismatch between fibers and matrix. High-strength fibers are important because once a matrix crack is initiated and extended, load is transferred from the matrix to the fibers in the wake of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... airfoils, as indicated. The cracking results from the repeated application of the thermal stresses developed due to nonuniform heating and cooling during engine acceleration and deceleration. The substitution of a stronger polycrystalline (PC) cast nickel-base superalloy (B-1900) for the wrought alloy (U...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... residual and the pseudo-macroscale residual stress. Causes of residual stresses include: Thermal expansion or contraction of a homogeneous material in a temperature gradient field Different thermal expansion coefficients of the various phases in a multiphase material Density changes due to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... that high compressive stresses ensure high fatigue strength of machine components and reduce the danger of crack occurrence and growth on the surface of components. In thermal hardening, the surfaces of suitable materials, usually plain carbon, low-alloy steels, or cast irons, are austenitized and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... delamination, if they are stressed too much during assembly. Microcracking is known to result in degradation of the mechanical properties of the laminate, including the moduli, Poisson’s ratio, and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Microcracking ( Fig. 7.32 ) can also induce secondary forms of damage...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
..., proper austenitization and quenching to martensite is necessary. These topics are discussed subsequently. Residual stress is defined as a tensile or compressive force within a material such as steel without application of a thermal gradient or an external force. Residual stresses are...