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thermal gradient

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract This article covers the thermal analysis and thermal properties of engineering plastics with respect to chemical composition, chain configuration, and/or conformation of the base polymers. The thermal analysis techniques covered are differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... simultaneously accompany processing. Orientation is removed by annealing above the T g . The effect of thermal stresses can be somewhat isolated from aging effects by the layer removal technique. However, aging may also be affected by temperature gradients, because material near the core of the sample is...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... technique and its value to the thermoset resin field. Epoxy resins are emphasized in the examples because they dominate the airframe and aerospace industries. The article also provides information on two categories of characterization of the processing behavior of thermoset. The first studies the thermal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses different thermal processes applicable to the various alloy groups of stainless steels, namely austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, precipitation hardening, and duplex stainless steels. The processes discussed include soaking, annealing, stress relieving...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... does caution that modest thermal ramps or gradients be used, below a dynamic frequency of 10 rad/s or 1.6 Hz to ensure that important transitions are not masked by testing too quickly. Fig. 18 Dynamic mechanical properties of a cylindrical urethane foam sample; 6.60 mm (0.26 in.) diam, 6.28 rad...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the thermally induced changes that occur on the surface of steel exposed to different environments. It explains how oxide scales form during heat treating and how factors such as temperature, composition, and surface finish affect growth rates, grain structure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... grains and the process by which they form. It describes how cooling rates, temperature gradients, and local concentrations influence the topology of the crystallization front, and how they play a role in determining the morphology and dispersion degree of the grains observed in cross sections of cast...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Temperature and deformation gradients developed in the course of manufacturing can have undesired effects on the microstructures along their path; the two most common being residual stress and distortion. This chapter discusses these manufacturing-related problems and how they can be minimized...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract Diffusion is the primary mechanism by which carbon atoms move or migrate in iron. It is driven by concentration gradients and aided by heat. This chapter provides a practical understanding of the diffusion process and its role in the production and treatment of steel. It discusses the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This chapter covers the emerging practice of quantitative microscopy and its application in the study of the microstructure of metals. It describes the methods used to quantify structural gradients, volume fraction, grain size and distribution, and other features of interest. It...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... carbon dioxide, providing oxygen that reacts with alloying elements, particularly manganese, chromium, and silicon. It examines the composition and distribution of oxides produced in different steels and assesses the resulting composition gradients. It describes how these changes influence the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... given in Table 2 . Figure 5 Thermal gradients induced at a thermocouple as a function of the laser beam position. Table 2 Seebeck coefficients for different materials [12 , 16] Q (PV/°C) Al -3.4 * W 3.6 * Al/n+ Si 287 ** Al/p+ Si -202...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... affect impact and tensile strength, shrinkage, thermal expansion, and thermal conductivity. It examines the relationship between tensile modulus and temperature, provides thermal property data for selected plastics, and discusses the effect of chemical exposure, operating temperature, and residual stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... determine the HAZ structures, whereas the thermal gradients, the solidification rates, and the cooling rates at the liquid-solid pool boundary determine the solidification structure of the weld metal zone. The size and flow direction of the pool determine the amount of dilution and weld penetration. The...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract This chapter describes three approaches for 3D hot-spot localization of thermally active defects by lock-in thermography (LIT). In the first section, phase-shift analysis for analyzing stacked die packages is performed. The second example employs defocusing sequences for the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... the interior. (c) Reversal of stresses on cooling. When the heated upper portion is allowed to cool to its original temperature and the thermal gradient with the lower portion disappears, the plate distorts as shown in Fig. 3(c) . The reason for this reversal is that the lateral compressive...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... using time-consuming remedial procedures. Duplex stainless steels, because of their moderate thermal expansion and higher thermal conductivity, can tolerate relatively high heat inputs since these factors determine the stress intensity that will be generated by thermal gradients. However...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... loop, mass transfer due to thermal gradients in the melt can be a critical issue ( Ref 6 ). It involves dissolution of an alloying element in hot zones and deposition of that alloying element in cold zones, resulting in tube plugging. The corrosion can also involve impurity and interstitial...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... the martempering bath while the part is still hot but has not yet transformed to martensite. Fig. 18 Typical martempering heat treatment. Source: Ref 1 The advantage of martempering is the reduced thermal gradient between the surface and center as the part is quenched to the isothermal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... properties are the response of a material to heat energy. As a solid absorbs heat energy, its temperature rises and its dimensions increase. If a temperature gradient exists, energy will be transported from the hotter to the cooler regions of the metal. If enough thermal energy is supplied, the metal will...