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thermal forming

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Published: 01 August 2012
Fig. 16.27 B-pillar inner forming results for uncoated DP980. TD, thermal diffusion; CVD, chemcial vapor deposition. Source: Ref 16.74 More
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Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 2 Forms of kinetic curves that represent various thermal degradation processes More
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Published: 01 February 2005
Fig. 16.14 Cracks formed as a result of thermal cycling [ Brucelle et al., 1999 ] More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
.... Fig. 8.5 Until the 19th century, panes of glass were made by spinning a rod with a glob of glass at the end and letting the centrifugal force form a disc from which panes could be cut. Source: Ref 8.3 Thermally-Induced Stresses Increased amounts of alkali and alkaline earth oxides...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract Boiler tubes subjected to cyclic or fluctuating loads over extended periods of time are prone to fatigue failure. Fatigue can occur at relatively low stresses and is implicated in almost 80% of the tube failures in firetube boilers. This chapter covers the most common forms of boiler...
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Published: 30 September 2023
Figure 5.11: An illustration of thermal activation, where a boundary lubricant (soap) forms during a first thermal cycle. This boundary lubricant persists upon cooling and reheating, improving the tribological performance thereafter. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
..., is an irreversible deformation that occurs when a material undergoes phase transformation under applied stress well below the yield strength of the material. Parameter 5d is not considered in the finite-element simulation. Thermal and Mechanical Properties Required for High-Temperature Forming Simulation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
...) and/or γ″-Ni 3 Nb precipitates form in the fcc γ matrix. The second is the low-coefficient-of-thermal-expansion (CTE) group of alloys discussed subsequently. The third group of nickel-iron-base superalloys is the modified stainless steels, primarily strengthened by solid-solution hardening and minor...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... by temperature changes or thermal cycles ( Ref 1 , 2 ). Impact loading is discussed in Chapter 11, “Impact Response of Composites,” in this book. Other environmental factors, such as water, solvent, and chemical absorption, can also cause microcracks to form and expand in composite materials. The initiation...
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 4.1 Alloy X (Ni-22Cr-18.5Fe-9Mo-0.6W) catalyst grid support structure bar after 2 years of service in a nitric acid plant. (a) Internal nitride precipitates (about 20 mils in depth) containing mainly chromium-rich nitrides along with some carbides formed during thermal aging. (b More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tstap.t56040001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-428-4
... components. [ 1 , 2 ] Metals, alloys, metal oxides, metal/ceramic blends, carbides, wires, rods, and various composite materials can be deposited on a variety of substrate materials to form unique coating microstructures or near-net-shape components. Thermal spray coatings provide a functional surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... welding. The principal factors that are responsible for failure (cracking) of dissimilar metal arc welds include: General alloying problems (brittle phase formation and limited mutual solubility) of the two metals Widely differing melting points Differences in coefficients of thermal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
...) becomes damaged (see preceding information), owing to thermal stresses that cause cracking and resultant spalling of oxide scales. Subsequent oxidation (assuming a sufficiently high temperature for the correct oxide to form) results in a regeneration of the favored protective oxide. This process takes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tstap.t56040010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-428-4
... as other industries and many consumer products. The thermal spray process requires a material in wire or powder form that is transferred to the surface by heat and/or kinetic energy, forming a protective layer. Thermal spray equipment basically consists of a spray gun, materials that are sprayed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550511
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... thermal expansion Bearings and bushings, close tolerance fittings, extrusion and forming dies, spindles, metal-forming rolls and tools, coordinate-measuring machine structures Thermal processing Heat recovery, hot-gas cleanup, general thermal processing Thermal stress resistance, corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... capability, high hardness and wear resistance, low thermal conductivity, and chemical inertness. The high-temperature capability of ceramics makes them very attractive materials for extremely high-temperature environments. However, due to their very low fracture toughness, ceramics are limited in structural...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
.... Thermal fatigue may be prevented in many parts by designing curves rather than straight lines into the system. When this is done, heating and cooling cycles simply cause distortion of the curves, rather than forming tensile residual stresses upon cooling. Expansion loops and bellows in elevated...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
..., resulting in less mobility of the molecules and an increase in viscosity. After the resin gels and