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thermal cracking units

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract This article covers the thermal analysis and thermal properties of engineering plastics with respect to chemical composition, chain configuration, and/or conformation of the base polymers. The thermal analysis techniques covered are differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
..., microstructure, and thermal history. Sensitization is particularly detrimental to austenitic stainless steels, and in many cases, eliminating it will eliminate the susceptibility to SCC. The chapter includes an extensive amount of data and illustrations. hydrogen embrittlement stainless steel stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...-lithiated water chemistry additives, the generally higher temperatures and fluxes, and the possibility of localized boiling and thermal concentration cells in crevices from γ heating, which, coupled with the borated-lithiated chemistry, could lead to aggressive local chemistries. Irradiation-assisted...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... service. The stress can also come from externally imposed thermal stresses or mechanical loading to which the component is subjected during service. The stresses imposed upon the component during service can affect the behavior of high-temperature corrosion attack or cause intergranular cracking. One...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... steel in carbonate solution. Source: Ref 2.129 Intergranular carbonate cracking also has occurred in other systems. For example, it was blamed for piping failures at a refinery catalytic cracking unit ( Ref 2.11 ). The transgranular cracks associated with near-neutral-pH SCC are generally...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract This chapter addresses the challenge of selecting an appropriate stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) test to evaluate the serviceability of a material for a given application. It begins by establishing a generic model in which SCC is depicted in two stages, initiation and propagation, that...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... increased SCC susceptibility. Table 5.5 Effect of precipitation hardening on stress-corrosion cracking of alloy 718 (UNS N07718) and alloy R-41 (UNS N07041) in chloride environments Two-point bend samples, tested for 1008 h Alloy Thermal treatment Hardness Time to failure, h 20.4% MgCl 2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... to be particularly dangerous; as a result, a low-temperature thermal stress-relief treatment has become standard recommended practice for welded assemblies. Shot peening and other mechanical processes that create favorable compressive surface residual stresses may also effectively increase SCC...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... such as deep drawing, punching, rolling, mismatch in riveting, welding, and so on. Unfavorable residual stresses also arise from differential thermal expansion and from installation. Various alloy systems have characteristic preferred crack paths. Stress-corrosion cracking usually follows...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... cracks that diminish mechanical properties. Thermal stresses are largely a consequence of high coefficients of thermal expansion and low thermal diffusivities. These effects, which are exacerbated when there is a large difference between the glass transition temperature, T g , and the ambient...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
...) the scale is compact and adherent, (b) electrode reactions are rapid enough to be in equilibrium at the interface and surface, (c) nonstoichiometry is small and uniform throughout the scale (i.e., defects are in thermal equilibrium throughout the scale), and (d) double-layer effects are ignored (i.e...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... usually indicative of slower crack propagation. Multiple cracks ( Fig. 1d ) are often associated with corrosion, stress corrosion, corrosion fatigue, thermal fatigue, or localized trauma. Fig. 1 Four types of cracks: (a) sharp and open, (b) sharp and tight, (c) jagged, (d) multiple. Source: Ref 1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
..., namely plasticization, solvation, swelling, environmental stress cracking, polymer degradation, surface embrittlement, and temperature effects. chemical susceptibility thermal oxidative degradation photo-oxidative degradation environmental corrosion chemical corrosion plasticization solvation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... thermal stresses occur in parts during welding due to the localized application of heat. Residual stresses and distortion remain after welding is completed. Transient thermal stresses, residual stresses, and distortion sometimes cause cracking and mismatching of joints. Hightensile residual stresses in...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
..., intended to reduce NOx emissions, accelerates tube wall wastage. It also covers circumferential cracking in furnace waterwalls, thermal fatigue cracking induced by waterlances and water cannons, superheater-reheater corrosion, and erosion in fluidized-bed boilers. coal-fired boilers combustion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract This article is a detailed account of the mechanisms of fatigue failure of polymers, namely thermal fatigue failure and mechanical fatigue failure. The mechanical fatigue failure is discussed in terms of fatigue crack initiation and fatigue crack propagation. thermal fatigue...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... materials with low melting points or those that may thermally decompose (i.e., nonmetallics and polymer-based composites) or become subject to damage by thermal shock when fire-fighting water is applied, particularly in the case of refinery piping and equipment used to handle highly flammable hydrocarbon...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... for PC can indicate embrittlement and a latent or observed failure in the part ( Ref 23 ). The thermal history of a stress-cracked polyamide (PA) gear was determined by DSC. The T g , T m , heat of fusion, and amide functionality (determined by IR spectroscopy) characterized the polymer as a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... Ideally, the aqueous dewpoint is shifted by the addition of the water wash. This practice must be carefully studied to determine the proper amount and injection location due to the complexities of the multiphase system ( Ref 3 ). Catalytic and thermal cracking units such as fluid catalytic cracking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... technique is commonly used for short failures. The failure is typically stimulated by applying a bias between the shorted pins; spurious heat is generated at the defect site and is conducted to the package surfaces and is detected by the thermal camera. To improve the signal to noise ratio, a lock-in signal...